• 1
    Hardeman W, Griffin S, Johnston M, Kinmonth AL, Wareham NJ. Interventions to prevent weight gain: a systematic review of psychological models and behaviour change methods. Int J Obes 2000; 24: 131143.
  • 2
    Health Council. Overgewicht en Obesitas [Overweight and Obesity]. Netherlands Health Council: The Hague, 2003.
  • 3
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Obesity: Guidance on the Prevention, Identification, Assessment and Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults and Children. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence: London, 2006.
  • 4
    Fogelholm M, Kukkonen-Harjula K. Does physical activity prevent weight gain – a systematic review. Obes Rev 2000; 1: 95111.
  • 5
    Carraro R, Garcia Cebrián M. Role of prevention in the contention of the obesity epidemic. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57: S94S96.
  • 6
    Davey RC. The obesity epidemic: too much food for thought? Br J Sports Med 2004; 38: 360363.
  • 7
    Mullis RM, Blair SN, Aronne LJ, Bier DM, Denke MA, Dietz W, Donato KA, Drewnowski A, French SA, Howard BV, Robinson TN, Swinburn B, Wechsler H. Prevention Conference VII: obesity, a worldwide epidemic related to heart disease and stroke: group IV: prevention/treatment. Circulation 2004; 110: 484488.
  • 8
    Matson-Koffman DM, Brownstein JN, Neiner JA, Greaney ML. A site-specific literature review of policy and environmental interventions that promote physical activity and nutrition for cardiovascular health: what works? Am J Health Promot 2005; 19: 167193.
  • 9
    Shaw K, O'Rourke P, Del Mar C, Kenardy J. Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 2: 162.
  • 10
    Brown T, Kelly S, Summerbell C. Prevention of obesity: a review of interventions. Obes Rev 2007; 8: 127130.
  • 11
    Lemmens VEPP, Oenema A, Klepp KI, Henriksen HB. A systematic review of the evidence regarding efficacy of obesity prevention interventions among adults. Obes Rev 2008; 9: 446455.
  • 12
    Winnet RA, Tate DF, Anderson ES, Wojcik JR, Winnet SG. Long-term weight gain prevention: a theoretically based Internet approach. Prev Med 2005; 41: 629641.
  • 13
    Brug J, Van Lenthe FJ, Kremers SP. Revisiting Kurt Lewin: how to gain insight into environmental correlates of obesogenic behaviors. Am J Prev Med 2006; 31: 525529.
  • 14
    Bartholomew LK, Parcel GS, Kok G, Gottlieb NH. Planning Health Promotion Programs: An Intervention Mapping Approach. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: San Francisco, CA, 2006.
  • 15
    Voedingscentrum. Nederland in Balans: Masterplan Preventie Overgewicht 2005–2010 [The Netherlands in Balance: Masterplan Overweight Prevention 2005–2010]. Voedingscentrum: The Hague, 2005.
  • 16
    Visscher TLS, Kremers SPJ, Kromhout D. Preventie van Gewichtsstijging en en Richtlijnen voor Gewichtsbeheersing [Prevention of Weight Gain and Guidelines for Weight Management]. Netherlands Heart Foundation: The Hague, 2007.
  • 17
    Kremers SP, De Bruijn GJ, Visscher TL, Van Mechelen W, De Vries NK, Brug J. Environmental influences on energy balance-related behaviors: a dual-process view. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2006; 3: 9.
  • 18
    Swinburn B, Egger G, Raza F. Dissecting obesogenic environments: the development and application of a framework for identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. Prev Med 1999; 29: 563570.
  • 19
    Ajzen I. The Theory of Planned Behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 1991; 50: 179211.
  • 20
    Cohen J. A power primer. Psychol Bull 1992; 112: 155159.
  • 21
    White IR, Thomas J. Standardized mean differences in individually-randomized and cluster-randomized trials, with application to meta-analysis. Clin Trials 2005; 2: 141151.
  • 22
    Lipsey MW, Wilson DB. Practical Meta-analysis. Sage: Newbury Park, CA, 2001.
  • 23
    Gomel M, Oldenburg B, Simpson JM, Owen N. Work-site cardiovascular risk reduction: a randomized trial of health risk assessment, education, counseling, and incentives. Am J Public Health 1993; 83: 12311238.
  • 24
    Jeffery RW, Forster JL, French SA, Kelder SH, Lando HA, McGovern PG, Jacobs DR Jr, Baxter JE. The Healthy Worker Project: a work-site intervention for weight control and smoking cessation. Am J Public Health 1993; 83: 395401.
  • 25
    Braeckman L, De Bacquer D, Maes L, De Backer G. Effects of a low-intensity worksite-based nutrition intervention. Occup Med 1999; 49: 549555.
  • 26
    Proper KI, Hildebrandt VH, Van der Beek AJ, Twisk JW, Van Mechelen W. Effect of individual counseling on physical activity fitness and health: a randomized controlled trial in a workplace setting. Am J Prev Med 2003; 24: 218226.
  • 27
    Kwak LN. The NHF-NRG in Balance Project Department of Human Biology. Maastricht University: Maastricht, 2007.
  • 28
    Murray DM, Kurth C, Mullis R, Jeffery RW. Cholesterol reduction through low-intensity interventions: results from the Minnesota Heart Health Program. Prev Med 1990; 19: 181189.
  • 29
    Shelley E, Daly L, Collins C, Christie M, Conroy R, Gibney M, Hickey N, Kelleher C, Kilcoyne PL, Mulcahy R, Murray P, O'Dwyer T, Radic A, Graham I. Cardiovascular risk factor changes in the Kilkenny Health Project. A community health promotion programme. Eur Heart J 1995; 16: 752760.
  • 30
    Baxter T, Milner P, Wilson K, Leaf M, Nicholl J, Freeman J, Cooper N. A cost effective, community based heart health promotion project in England: prospective comparative study. BMJ 1997; 315: 582585.
  • 31
    Jeffery RW, French SA. Preventing weight gain in adults: design, methods and one year results from the Pound of Prevention Study. Int J Obes 1997; 21: 457464.
  • 32
    Jeffery RW, French SA. Preventing weight gain in adults: the Pound of Prevention Study. Am J Public Health 1999; 89: 747751.
  • 33
    O'Loughlin JL, Paradis G, Gray-Donald K, Renaud L. The impact of a community-based heart disease prevention program in a low-income, inner-city neighborhood. Am J Public Health 1999; 89: 18191826.
  • 34
    Donnelly JE, Hill JO, Jacobsen DJ, Potteiger J, Sullivan DK, Johnson SL. Effects of a 16-month randomized controlled exercise trial on body weight and composition in young, overweight men and women: the Midwest Exercise Trial. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 13431350.
  • 35
    Schmitz KH, Jensen MD, Kugler KC, Jeffery RW, Leon AS. Strength training for obesity prevention in midlife women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003; 27: 326333.
  • 36
    Dzator JA, Hendrie D, Burke V, Gianguilio N, Gillam HF, Beilin LJ, Houghton S. A randomized trial of interactive group sessions achieved greater improvements in nutrition and physical activity at a tiny increase in cost. J Clin Epidemiol 2004; 57: 610619.
  • 37
    Slentz CA, Duscha BD, Johnson JL, Ketchum K, Aiken LB, Samsa GP, Houmard JA, Bales CW, Kraus WE. Effects of the amount of exercise on body weight, body composition, and measures of central obesity: STRRIDE-a randomized controlled study. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164: 3139.
  • 38
    Jenum AK, Anderssen SA, Birkeland KI, Holme I, Graff-Iversen S, Lorentzen C, Ommundsen Y, Raastad T, Odegaard AK, Bahr R. Promoting physical activity in a low-income multiethnic district: effects of a community intervention study to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a community intervention reducing inactivity. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 16051612.
  • 39
    Levitsky DA, Garay J, Nausbaum M, Neighbors L, Dellavalle DM. Monitoring weight daily blocks the freshman weight gain: a model for combating the epidemic of obesity. Int J Obes 2006; 30: 10031010.
  • 40
    Schuit AJ, Wendel-Vos GC, Verschuren WM, Ronckers ET, Ament A, Van Assema P, Van Ree J, Ruland EC. Effect of 5-year community intervention Hartslag Limburg on cardiovascular risk factors. Am J Prev Med 2006; 30: 237242.
  • 41
    Hivert MF, Langlois MF, Berard P, Cuerrier JP, Carpentier AC. Prevention of weight gain in young adults through a seminar-based intervention program. Int J Obes 2007; 31: 12621269.
  • 42
    Salyer J, Flattery M, Joyner P, Friend J, Elswick RK Jr. Community-based weight management in long-term heart transplant recipients: a pilot study. Prog Transplant 2007; 17: 315323.
  • 43
    Family Heart Study Group. Randomised controlled trial evaluating cardiovascular screening and intervention in general practice: principal results of British family heart study. BMJ 1994; 308: 313320.
  • 44
    Andersen RE, Wadden TA, Bartlett SJ, Zemel B, Verde TJ, Franckowiak SC. Effects of lifestyle acivity vs. structured aerobic exercise in obese women: a randomized trial. JAMA 1999; 281: 335340.
  • 45
    Riebe D, Greene GW, Ruggiero L, Stillwell KM, Blissmer B, Nigg CR, Caldwell M. Evaluation of a healthy-lifestyle approach to weight management. Prev Med 2003; 36: 4554.
  • 46
    Jackson C, Coe A, Cheater FM, Wroe S. Specialist health visitor-led weight management intervention in primary care: exploratory evaluation. J Adv Nurs 2007; 58: 2334.
  • 47
    McConnon A, Kirk SF, Cockroft JE, Harvey EL, Greenwood DC, Thomas JD, Ransley JK, Bojke L. The Internet for weight control in an obese sample: results of a randomised controlled trial. BMC Health Serv Res 2007; 7: 206.
  • 48
    Howard-Pitney B, Winkleby MA, Albright CL, Bruce B, Fortmann SP. The Stanford Nutrition Action Program: a dietary fat intervention for low-literacy adults. Am J Public Health 1997; 87: 19711976.
  • 49
    Yanek LR, Becker DM, Moy TF, Gittelsohn J, Koffman DM. Project Joy: faith based cardiovascular health promotion for African–American women. Public Health Rep 2001; 116(Suppl. 1): 6881.
  • 50
    Hall WD, Feng Z, George VA, Lewis CE, Oberman A, Huber M, Fouad M, Cutler JA. Low-fat diet: effect on anthropometrics, blood pressure, glucose, and insulin in older women. Ethn Dis 2003; 13: 337343.
  • 51
    Winett RA, Anderson ES, Wojcik JR, Winett SG, Bowden T. Guide to Health: nutrition and physical activity outcomes of a group-randomized trial of an Internet-based intervention in churches. Ann Behav Med 2007; 33: 251261.
  • 52
    Clapp JF III, Little KD. Effect of recreational exercise on pregnancy weight gain and subcutaneous fat deposition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27: 170177.
  • 53
    Polley BA, Wing RR, Sims CJ. Randomized controlled trial to prevent excessive weight gain in pregnant women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 26: 14941502.
  • 54
    Olson CM, Strawderman MS, Reed RG. Efficacy of an intervention to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 530536.
  • 55
    Kinnunen TI, Pasanen M, Aittasalo M, Fogelholm M, Hilakivi-Clarke L, Weiderpass E, Louto R. Preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy – a controlled trial in primary health care. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007; 61: 884891.
  • 56
    Kuller LH, Simkin-Silverman LR, Wing RR, Meilahn EN, Ives DG. Women's Healthy Lifestyle Project: a randomized clinical trial: results at 54 months. Circulation 2001; 103: 3237.
  • 57
    Simkin-Silverman LR, Wing RR, Boraz MA, Kuller LH. Lifestyle intervention can prevent weight gain during menopause: results from a 5-year randomized clinical trial. Ann Behav Med 2003; 26: 212220.
  • 58
    Howard BV, Manson JE, Stefanick ML, Beresford SA, Frank G, Jones B, Rodabough RJ, Snetselaar L, Thomson C, Tinker L, Vitolins M, Prentice R. Low-fat dietary pattern and weight change over 7 years: the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA 2006; 295: 3949.
  • 59
    Hall SM, Tunstall CD, Vila KL, Duffy J. Weight gain prevention and smoking cessation: cautionary findings. Am J Public Health 1992; 82: 799803.
  • 60
    Pirie PL, McBride CM, Hellerstedt W, Jeffery RW, Hatsukami D, Allen S, Lando H. Smoking cessation in women concerned about weight. Am J Public Health 1992; 82: 12381243.
  • 61
    Danielsson T, Rossner S, Westin A. Open randomised trial of intermittent very low energy diet together with nicotine gum for stopping smoking in women who gained weight in previous attempts to quit. BMJ 1999; 319: 490493.
  • 62
    Marcus BH, Albrecht AE, King TK, Parisi AF, Pinto BM, Roberts M, Niaura RS, Abrams DB. The efficacy of exercise as an aid for smoking cessation in women: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159: 12291234.
  • 63
    Jonsdottir D, Jonsdottir H. Does physical exercise in addition to a multicomponent smoking cessation program increase abstinence rate and suppress weight gain? An intervention study. Scand J Caring Sci 2001; 15: 275282.
  • 64
    Perkins KA, Marcus MD, Levine MD, D'Amico D, Miller A, Broge M, Ashcom J, Schiffman S. Cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce weight concerns improves smoking cessation outcome in weight-concerned women. J Consult Clin Psychol 2001; 69: 604613.
  • 65
    Spring B, Doran N, Pagoto S, Schneider K, Pingitore R, Hedeker D. Randomized controlled trial for behavioral smoking and weight control treatment: effect of concurrent versus sequential intervention. J Consult Clin Psychol 2004; 72: 785796.
  • 66
    Copeland AL, Martin PD, Geiselman PJ, Rash CJ, Kendzor DE. Smoking cessation for weight-concerned women: group vs. individually tailored, dietary, and weight-control follow-up sessions. Addict Behav 2006; 31: 115127.
  • 67
    Rimmer JH, Heller T, Wang E, Valerio I. Improvements in physical fitness in adults with Down syndrome. Am J Ment Retard 2004; 109: 165174.
  • 68
    Chapman MJ, Craven MJ, Chadwick DD. Fighting Fit? An evaluation of health practitioner input to improve healthy living and reduce obesity for adults with learning disabilities. J Intellect Disabil 2005; 9: 131144.
  • 69
    Seo DC, Sa J. A meta-analysis of psycho-behavioral obesity interventions among US multiethnic and minority adults. Prev Med 2008; 47: 573582.
  • 70
    Kumanyika S. Ethnic minorities and weight control research priorities: where are we now and where do we need to be? Prev Med 2008; 47: 583586.
  • 71
    DeHaven MJ, Hunter IB, Wilder L, Walton JW, Berry J. Health programs in faith-based organizations: are they effective? Am J Public Health 2004; 94: 10301036.
  • 72
    Baker EA, Kelly C, Barnidge E, Strayhorn J, Schootman M, Struthers J, Griffith D. The Garden of Eden: acknowledging the impact of race and class in efforts to decrease obesity rates. Am J Public Health 2006; 96: 11701174.
  • 73
    Kim KH, Linnan L, Campbell MK, Brooks C, Koenig HG, Wiesen C. The WORD (wholeness, oneness, righteousness, deliverance): a faith-based weight-loss program utilizing a community-based participatory research approach. Health Educ Behav 2008; 35: 634650.
  • 74
    Resnicow K, Jackson A, Braithwaite R, DiIorio C, Blisset D, Rahotep S, Periasamy S. Healthy body/healthy spirit: a church-based nutrition and physical activity intervention. Health Educ Res 2002; 17: 562573.
  • 75
    The Improved Clinical Effectiveness through Behavioural Research Group (ICEBeRG). Designing theoretically-informed implementation interventions. Implement Sci 2006; 1: 411.
  • 76
    Abraham C, Michie S. Standardising intervention descriptions: development of a reliable taxonomy of change techniques. Health Psychol Rev 2007; 1(Suppl. 1): 257 (paper presented at the 21st conference of the European Health Psychology Society, Maastricht, the Netherlands, 15–18 August 2007).