• 1
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. High body mass index for age among US children and adolescents, 2003–2006. JAMA 2008; 299: 24012405.
  • 2
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA 2006; 295: 15491555.
  • 3
    American Heart Association. Overweight and obesity: statistics. [WWW document]. URL (updated 2008, accessed 30 November 2009).
  • 4
    Beebe DW, Lewin D, Zeller M, McCabe M, MacLeod K, Daniels S, Amin R. Sleep in overweight adolescents: shorter sleep, poorer sleep quality, sleepiness, and sleep-disordered breathing. J Pediatr Psychol 2007; 32: 6979.
  • 5
    Chen AK, Roberts CK, Barnard RJ. Effect of a short-term diet and exercise intervention on metabolic syndrome in overweight children. Metabolism 2006; 55: 871878.
  • 6
    Freedman D, Mei Z, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS, Dietz WH. Cardiovascular risk factors and excess adiposity among overweight children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. J Pediatr 2007; 150: 1217.
  • 7
    Hannon T, Rao G, Arslanian S. Childhood obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics 2005; 116: 473480.
  • 8
    Janssen I, Katzmarzyk P, Srinivasan SR, Chen W, Malina R, Bouchard C, Berenson G. Combined influence of body mass index and waist circumference on coronary artery disease risk factors among children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2005; 115: 16231630.
  • 9
    Janicke DM, Harman JS, Kelleher KJ, Zhang J. The association of psychiatric diagnoses, health service use, and expenditures in children with obesity-related health conditions. J Pediatr Psychol 2009; 34: 7988.
  • 10
    Wearing S, Hennig E, Byrne N, Steele J, Hills A. The impact of childhood obesity on musculoskeletal form. Obes Rev 2006; 7: 209218.
  • 11
    Gance-Cleveland B, Gilbert LH, Kopanos T, Gilbert KC. Evaluation of technology to identify and assess overweight children and adolescents. J Spec Pediatr Nurs 2010; 15: 7283.
  • 12
    Barlow SE, Dietz W. Obesity evaluation and treatment: Expert Committee recommendations. Pediatrics 1998; 102: e29.
  • 13
    National Association of Neonatal and Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Identifying and preventing overweight in childhood clinical practice guideline part I. J Pediatr Health Care 2006; 20(Suppl. 1): 132.
  • 14
    National Initiative for Children's Healthcare Quality. Expert Committee recommendations on the assessment, prevention and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity – 2007: an implementation guide from the Childhood Obesity Action Network. [WWW document]. URL (updated 2007, accessed 16 February 2010).
  • 15
    American Academy of Pediatrics Steering Committee on Quality Improvement & Management. Classifying recommendations for CPGs. Pediatrics 2004; 114: 874877.
  • 16
    Barlow SE, the Expert Committee. Expert Committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics 2007; 120: S164S192.
  • 17
    Spear BA, Barlow SE, Ervin C, Ludwig D, Saelens B, Schetzina K, Taveras E. Recommendations for treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity. Pediatrics 2007; 120(Suppl. 4): S254S288.
  • 18
    Spurrier N, Magarey A, Wong C. Recognition and management of childhood overweight and obesity in children. J Paediatr Child Health 2006; 42: 411418.
  • 19
    Anderson PM, Butcher KE. Childhood obesity: trends and potential causes. Future Child 2006; 16: 1945.
  • 20
    Story MT, Neumark-Stzainer DR, Sherwood NE, Holt K, Sofka D, Trowbridge F, Barlow S. Management of child and adolescent obesity: attitudes, barriers, skills, and training needs among health care professionals. Pediatrics 2002; 110: 210.
  • 21
    Cabana MD, Rand CS, Powe NR, Wu AW, Wilson MH, Abboud PC, Rubin HR. Why don't physicians follow clinical practice guidelines? A framework for improvement. JAMA 1999; 282: 14581465.
  • 22
    Barlow SE, Dietz WH, Klish WJ, Trowbridge FL. Medical evaluation of overweight children and adolescents: reports from pediatricians, pediatric nurse practitioners, and registered dietitians. Pediatrics 2002; 110(1 Pt 2):222228.
  • 23
    Mabry IR, Clark SJ, Kemper A, Fraser K, Kileny S, Cabana MD. Variation in establishing a diagnosis of obesity in children. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2005; 44: 221227.
  • 24
    Cook S. Screening and counseling associated with obesity diagnosis in a national survey of ambulatory pediatric visits. Pediatrics 2005; 116: 112116.
  • 25
    Dilley KJ, Martin LA, Sullivan C, Seshadri R, Binns HJ, Pediatric Practice Research G. Identification of overweight status is associated with higher rates of screening for comorbidities of overweight in pediatric primary care practice. Pediatrics 2007; 119: e148e155.
  • 26
    Beno L, Hinchman J, Kibbe D, Trowbridge F. Design and implementation of training to improve management of pediatric overweight. J Contin Educ Health Prof 2005; 25: 248258.
  • 27
    Perrin EM, Finkle JP, Benjamin JT. Obesity prevention and the primary care pediatrician's office. Curr Opin Pediatr 2007; 19: 354361.
  • 28
    Goff SL, Holmboe ES, Curry L. Barriers to obesity training for pediatric residents: a qualitative exploration of residency director perspectives. Teach Learn Med 2006; 18: 348355.
  • 29
    Wagner EH. Chronic disease management: what will it take to improve care for chronic illness? Eff Clin Pract 1998; 1: 24.
  • 30
    Glasgow RE, Orleans CT, Wagner EH. Does the chronic care model serve also as a template for improving prevention? Milbank Q 2001; 79: 579612.
  • 31
    National Initiative on Child Health Quality. Child Care Model. [WWW document]. URL (accessed 25 October 2006).
  • 32
    Dietz W, Lee J, Wechsler H, Malepati S, Sherry B. Health plans' role in preventing overweight in children and adolescents. Health Aff 2007; 26: 430440.
  • 33
    Benin AL, Vitkauskas G, Thornquist E, Shapiro ED, Concato J, Aslan M, Krumholz HM. Validity of using an electronic medical record for assessing quality of care in an outpatient setting. Med Care 2005; 43: 691698.
  • 34
    Bodenheimer T. Interventions to improve chronic illness care: evaluating their effectiveness. Dis Manag 2003; 6: 6371.
  • 35
    Bodenheimer T, Wagner EH, Grumbach K. Improving primary care for patients with chronic illness: the chronic care model, Part 2. JAMA 2002a; 288: 17751779.
  • 36
    Bodenheimer T, Wagner EH, Grumbach K. Improving primary care for patients with chronic care illness: the chronic care model. JAMA 2002b; 288: 19091914.
  • 37
    Bray P, Roupe M, Young S, Harrell J, Cummings DM, Whetstone LM. Feasibility and effectiveness of system redesign for diabetes care management in rural areas: the eastern North Carolina experience. Diabetes Educ 2005; 31: 712718.
  • 38
    Hupke C, Camp AW, Chaufournier R, Langley GJ, Little K. Transforming diabetes care: Part 1. Changing practice. Diabetes Spectr 2004; 17: 102106.
  • 39
    Norris SL, Olson DE. Implementing evidence-based diabetes care in geriatric populations: the chronic care model. Geriatrics 2004; 59: 3539.
  • 40
    Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts. Healthy Care for Healthy Kids: a pediatric learning collaborative. Jump Up Go Newsletter 2005; 1: 18.
  • 41
    Melnyk BM, Fineout-Overholt E. Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing & Healthcare : A Guide to Best Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA, 2005.
  • 42
    Gee S, Howell A, Mirkin RE. Overweight children: a comprehensive approach to address the epidemic. [WWW document]. URL (updated 2006, accessed 16 September 2008).
  • 43
    Dennison D, Yin Z, Kibbe D, Burns S, Trowbridge F. Training health care professionals to manage overweight adolescents: experience in rural Georgia communities. J Rural Health 2008; 24: 5559.
  • 44
    Hinchman J, Beno L, Dennison D, Trowbridge F. Evaluation of a training to improve management of pediatric overweight. J Contin Educ Health Prof 2005; 25: 259267.
  • 45
    Schwartz RP, Hamre R, Dietz WH, Wasserman RC, Slora EJ, Myers EF, Sullivan S, Rockett H, Toma KA, Dumitru G, Resnicow KA. Office-based motivational interviewing to prevent childhood obesity: a feasibility study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2007; 161: 495501.
  • 46
    Gonzalez JL, Gilmer L. Obesity prevention in pediatrics: a pilot pediatric resident curriculum intervention on nutrition and obesity education and counseling. J Natl Med Assoc 2006; 98: 14831488.
  • 47
    Polacsek M, Orr J, Letourneau L, Rogers V, Homberg R, O'Rourke K, Hannon C, Lombard KA, Gortmaker SL. Impact of a primary care intervention on physician practice and patient and family behavior: keep ME healthy – the Maine youth overweight collaborative. Pediatrics 2009; 123(Suppl. 5): S258S266.
  • 48
    Nicholas J, Dennison B, de Long R, Prokorym M, Brissette I. Randomized controlled trial of a mailed toolkit to increase use of body mass index percentiles to screen for childhood obesity. Prev Chronic Dis 2009; 6: 111.
  • 49
    Perrin EM, Jacobson Vann JC, Lazorick S, Ammerman A, Teplin S, Flower K, Wegner S, Benjamin J. Bolstering confidence in obesity prevention and treatment counseling for resident and community pediatricians. Patient Educ Couns 2008; 73: 179185.
  • 50
    McCallum Z, Wake M, Gerner B, Harris C, Gibbons K, Gunn J, Waters E, Baur LA. Can Australian general practitioners tackle childhood overweight/obesity? Methods and processes from the LEAP (Live, Eat and Play) randomized controlled trial. J Paediatr Child Health 2005; 41: 488494.
  • 51
    Ewing LJ, Cluss P, Goldstrohm S, Ulrich R, Colborn K, Cipriani L, Wald E. Translating an evidence-based intervention for pediatric overweight to a primary care setting. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2009; 48: 397403.
  • 52
    Pomietto M, Docter AD, Van Borkulo N, Alfonsi L, Krieger J, Liu LL. Small steps to health: building sustainable partnerships in pediatric obesity care. Pediatrics 2009; 123(Suppl. 5): S308S316.
  • 53
    Coleman K, Austin BT, Brach C, Wagner EH. Evidence on the Chronic Care Model in the new millennium. Health Aff (Millwood) 2009; 28: 7585.
  • 54
    Snethen J, Broome ME, Cashin S. Effective weight loss for overweight children: a meta-analysis of intervention studies. J Pediatr Nurs 2006; 21: 4556.
  • 55
    Cotton B, Smith A, Hansen I, Davis C, Doyle A, Walsh A. Physician-directed primary care intervention to reduce risk factors for Type 2 diabetes in high-risk youth. Am J Med Sci 2006; 332: 108111.
  • 56
    Young PC. Efficacy of a weight management program in overweight children. JAMA 2007; 298: 1860.
  • 57
    Jacobson D. A Primary Care School Age Healthy Choices Intervention Program. [PhD]. Arizona State University, Arizona, USA; 2009.
  • 58
    McCallum Z, Wake M, Gerner B, Baur LA, Gibbons K, Gold L, Gunn J, Harris C, Naughton G, Riess C, Sanci L, Sheehan J, Ukoumunne OC, Waters E. Outcome data from the LEAP (Live, Eat and Play) trial: a randomized controlled trial of a primary care intervention for childhood overweight/mild obesity. Int J Obes 2007; 31: 630636.
  • 59
    Dunlop AL, Leroy Z, Trowbridge FL, Kibbe DL. Improving provider's assessment and management of childhood overweight: results of an intervention. Ambul Pediatr 2007; 7: 453457.
  • 60
    Kopp MK, Hornberger C. Proper exercise and nutrition kit: use of obesity screening and assessment tools with underserved populations. J Pediatr Nurs 2008; 23: 5864.
  • 61
    Epstein LH, Valoski A, Wing R, McCurley J. Ten-year outcomes of behavioral family-based treatment for childhood obesity. Health Psychol 1994; 13: 383.
  • 62
    Gance-Cleveland B, Sidora-Arcoleo K, Keesing H, Gottlesman MM, Brady M. Changes in nurse practitioners' knowledge and behaviors following brief training on the Healthy Eating and Activity Together (HEAT) guidelines. J Pediatr Health Care 2009; 23: 222230.