• 1
    Shixian Q, VanCrey B, Shi J, Kakuda Y, Jiang Y. Green tea extract thermogenesis-induced weight loss by epigallocatechin gallate inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase. J Med Food 2006; 9: 451458.
  • 2
    Wolfram S, Wang Y, Thielecke F. Anti-obesity effects of green tea: from bedside to bench. Mol Nutr Food Res 2006; 50: 176187.
  • 3
    Krul C, Luiten-Schuite A, Tenfelde A, van Ommen B, Verhagen H, Havenaar R. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model. Mutat Res 2001; 474: 7185.
  • 4
    Langley-Evans SC. Antioxidant potential of green and black tea determined using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2000; 51: 181188.
  • 5
    Serafini M, Ghiselli A, Ferro-Luzzi A. In vivo antioxidant effect of green and black tea in man. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996; 50: 2832.
  • 6
    Westerterp-Plantenga M, Diepvens K, Joosen AM, Berube-Parent S, Tremblay A. Metabolic effects of spices, teas, and caffeine. Physiol Behav 2006; 89: 8591.
  • 7
    Diepvens K, Westerterp KR, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Obesity and thermogenesis related to the consumption of caffeine, ephedrine, capsaicin, and green tea. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2007; 292: R77R85.
  • 8
    Hsu CH, Tsai TH, Kao YH, Hwang KC, Tseng TY, Chou P. Effect of green tea extract on obese women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin Nutr 2008; 27: 363370.
  • 9
    Nagao T, Hase T, Tokimitsu I. A green tea extract high in catechins reduces body fat and cardiovascular risks in humans. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007; 15: 14731483.
  • 10
    Nagao T, Komine Y, Soga S, Meguro S, Hase T, Tanaka Y, Tokimitsu I. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81: 122129.
  • 11
    Auvichayapat P, Prapochanung M, Tunkamnerdthai O, Sripanidkulchai BO, Auvichayapat N, Thinkhamrop B, Kunhasura S, Wongpratoom S, Sinawat S, Hongprapas P. Effectiveness of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais: a randomized, controlled trial. Physiol Behav 2008; 93: 486491.
  • 12
    Hase T, Komine Y, Meguro S, Takeda Y, Takahashi H, Matsui Y, Inaoka S, Katsuragi Y, Tokimitsu I, Shimasaki H, Itakura H. Anti-obesity effects of tea catechins in humans. J Oleo Sci 2001; 50: 599605.
  • 13
    Kozuma K, Chikama A, Hishino E, Kataoka K, Mori K, Hase T, Katsuragi Y, Tokimitsu I, Nakamura H. Effect of intake of a beverage containing 540 mg catechins on the body composition of obese women and men. Prog Med 2005; 25: 185197.
  • 14
    Tsuchida T, Itakura H, Nakamura H. Reduction of body fat in humans by long-term ingestion of catechins. Prog Med 2002; 22: 21892203.
  • 15
    Wang H, Wen Y, Du Y, Yan X, Guo H, Rycroft JA, Boon N, Kovacs EM, Mela DJ. Effects of catechin enriched green tea on body composition. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009; e-pub ahead of print.
  • 16
    Diepvens K, Kovacs EM, Nijs IM, Vogels N, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Effect of green tea on resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation during weight loss in overweight females. Br J Nutr 2005; 94: 10261034.
  • 17
    Kovacs EM, Lejeune MP, Nijs I, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss. Br J Nutr 2004; 91: 431437.
  • 18
    Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM. Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation. Obes Res 2005; 13: 11951204.
  • 19
    Hursel R, Viechtbauer W, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis. Int J Obes (Lond) 2009; 33: 956961.
  • 20
    Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, Girardier L, Mensi N, Fathi M, Chantre P, Vandermander J. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 10401045.
  • 21
    Berube-Parent S, Pelletier C, Dore J, Tremblay A. Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men. Br J Nutr 2005; 94: 432436.
  • 22
    Boschmann M, Thielecke F. The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and fat oxidation in obese men: a pilot study. J Am Coll Nutr 2007; 26: 389S395S.
  • 23
    Gregersen NT, Bitz C, Krog-Mikkelsen I, Hels O, Kovacs EM, Rycroft JA, Frandsen E, Mela DJ, Astrup A. Effect of moderate intakes of different tea catechins and caffeine on acute measures of energy metabolism under sedentary conditions. Br J Nutr 2009; 102: 11871194.
  • 24
    Belza A, Toubro S, Astrup A. The effect of caffeine, green tea and tyrosine on thermogenesis and energy intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 2009; 63: 5764.
  • 25
    Viechtbauer W. Bias and efficiency of meta-analytic variance estimators in the random-effects model. J Educ Behav Stat 2005; 30: 261293.
  • 26
    Bracco D, Ferrarra JM, Arnaud MJ, Jequier E, Schutz Y. Effects of caffeine on energy metabolism, heart rate, and methylxanthine metabolism in lean and obese women. Am J Physiol 1995; 269: E671E678.
  • 27
    Rudelle S, Ferruzzi MG, Cristiani I, Moulin J, Mace K, Acheson KJ, Tappy L. Effect of a thermogenic beverage on 24-hour energy metabolism in humans. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007; 15: 349355.
  • 28
    Rumpler W, Seale J, Clevidence B, Judd J, Wiley E, Yamamoto S, Komatsu T, Sawaki T, Ishikura Y, Hosoda K. Oolong tea increases metabolic rate and fat oxidation in men. J Nutr 2001; 131: 28482852.
  • 29
    Dulloo AG, Geissler CA, Horton T, Collins A, Miller DS. Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 1989; 49: 4450.
  • 30
    Bray GA. Obesity, a disorder of nutrient partitioning: the MONA LISA hypothesis. J Nutr 1991; 121: 11461162.
  • 31
    Landsberg L. Diet, obesity and hypertension: an hypothesis involving insulin, the sympathetic nervous system, and adaptive thermogenesis. Q J Med 1986; 61: 10811090.
  • 32
    Davy KP, Orr JS. Sympathetic nervous system behavior in human obesity. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2009; 33: 116124.
  • 33
    Schutz Y, Tremblay A, Weinsier RL, Nelson KM. Role of fat oxidation in the long-term stabilization of body weight in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 55: 670674.
  • 34
    Westerterp KR, Smeets A, Lejeune MP, Wouters-Adriaens MP, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Dietary fat oxidation as a function of body fat. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87: 132135.
  • 35
    Schutz Y, Flatt JP, Jequier E. Failure of dietary fat intake to promote fat oxidation: a factor favoring the development of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1989; 50: 307314.
  • 36
    Raederstorff DG, Schlachter MF, Elste V, Weber P. Effect of EGCG on lipid absorption and plasma lipid levels in rats. J Nutr Biochem 2003; 14: 326332.
  • 37
    Juhel C, Armand M, Pafumi Y, Rosier C, Vandermander J, Lairon D. Green tea extract (AR25) inhibits lipolysis of triglycerides in gastric and duodenal medium in vitro. J Nutr Biochem 2000; 11: 4551.
  • 38
    Koo SI, Noh SK. Green tea as inhibitor of the intestinal absorption of lipids: potential mechanism for its lipid-lowering effect. J Nutr Biochem 2007; 18: 179183.
  • 39
    Wang S, Noh SK, Koo SI. Epigallocatechin gallate and caffeine differentially inhibit the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and fat in ovariectomized rats. J Nutr 2006; 136: 27912796.
  • 40
    Acheson KJ, Gremaud G, Meirim I, Montigon F, Krebs Y, Fay LB, Gay LJ, Schneiter P, Schindler C, Tappy L. Metabolic effects of caffeine in humans: lipid oxidation or futile cycling? Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79: 4046.
  • 41
    Hursel R, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Thermogenic ingredients and body weight regulation. Int J Obes (Lond) 2010; 34(4): 659669.
  • 42
    Yang F, Oz HS, Barve S, de Villiers WJ, McClain CJ, Varilek GW. The green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate blocks nuclear factor-kappa B activation by inhibiting I kappa B kinase activity in the intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Mol Pharmacol 2001; 60: 528533.
  • 43
    Shishikura Y, Khokhar S, Murray BS. Effects of tea polyphenols on emulsification of olive oil in a small intestine model system. J Agric Food Chem 2006; 54: 19061913.
  • 44
    Kao YH, Hiipakka RA, Liao S. Modulation of endocrine systems and food intake by green tea epigallocatechin gallate. Endocrinology 2000; 141: 980987.
  • 45
    Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Burke V, Croft KD. Is reversal of endothelial dysfunction by tea related to flavonoid metabolism? Br J Nutr 2006; 95: 1417.
  • 46
    Palmatier MA, Kang AM, Kidd KK. Global variation in the frequencies of functionally different catechol-O-methyltransferase alleles. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 46: 557567.