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Figure S1. Funnel plot of the effects of weight loss on memory domain.

Figure S2. Funnel plot of the effects of weight loss on attention/executive domain. The two outliers refer to the results by Wing et al. The Funnel plot after excluding the outliers is described in Fig. S3.

Figure S3. Funnel plot for the attention–executive domain after exclusion of the two outliers.

Table S1. Cognitive tests used in the studies included in this systematic review. Study reference numbers refer to the numerical order of the study presented in Table 1.

Table S2. Meta-analysis of memory domains reporting the effect sizes (ES) of weight loss in each study for each individual measure of cognition. The meta-analysis has been stratified by baseline body mass index (BMI) in obesity and overweight.

Table S3. Meta-analysis of attention/executive function domains reporting the effect sizes (ES) of weight loss in each study for each individual measure of cognition. The meta-analysis has been stratified by baseline body mass index (BMI) in obesity and overweight.

Table S4. Meta-analysis of weight-loss studies including a control group as part of the study design and reporting the effect sizes (ES) of weight loss on memory domains in each study for each individual measure of cognition.

Table S5. Meta-analysis of weight-loss studies including a control group as part of the study design and reporting the effect sizes (ES) of weight loss on attention/executive domains in each study for each individual measure of cognition.

Table S6. Memory domain. Sensitivity analysis using multiple imputations of pre–post weight loss coefficient of correlation (r) to evaluate changes in effect size (ES) of the meta-analysis random models.

Table S7. Attention/executive domain. Sensitivity analysis using multiple imputations of pre–post weight loss coefficient of correlation (r) to evaluate changes in effect size (ES) of the meta-analysis random models.

Table S8. Effect sizes (ES) of the fixed and random models for the effects of weight loss on attention/executive domain after exclusion of two outliers reported in Fig. S2.

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