• 1
    World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2006 – Working Together for Health. World Health Organization: Geneva, 2006.
  • 2
    Duarte NL, Colagiuri S, Palu T, Wang XL, Wilcken DEL. Obesity, Type II diabetes and the Ala54Thr polymorphism of fatty acid binding protein 2 in the Tongan population. Mol Genet Metab 2003; 79: 183188.
  • 3
    Smith BJ, Phongsavan P, Havea D, Halavatau V, Chey T, Members of the Health Behaviour and Lifestyle of Pacific Youth Survey Collaborating Group, Tonga Core Survey Team. Body mass index, physical activity and dietary behaviours among adolescents in the Kingdom of Tonga. Public Health Nutr 2007; 10: 137144.
  • 4
    Fukuyama S, Inaoka T, Matsumura Y, Yamauchi T, Natsuhara K, Kimura R et al. Anthropometry of 5–19-year-old Tongan children with special interest in the high prevalence of obesity among adolescent girls. Ann Hum Biol 2005; 32: 714723.
  • 5
    Doran C. Economic impact assessment of non-communicable diseases on hospital resources in Tonga, Vanuatu and Kiribati. Pacific Action for Health Project. Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Noumea, New Caledonia, 2003. [WWW document]. URL (accessed September 2010).
  • 6
    Swinburn B, Egger G, Raza F. Dissecting obesogenic environments: the development and application of a framework for identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. Prev Med 1999; 29: 563570.
  • 7
    World Health Organization. Tonga; Health Situation and Trend. World Health Organization: Geneva, 2010.
  • 8
    Coyne T. Lifestyle Diseases in Pacific Communities. Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Noumea, 2000.
  • 9
    Craig P, Halavatau V, Comino E, Caterson ID. Perception of body size in the Tongan community: differences from and similarities to an Australian sample. Int J Obes 1999; 23: 12881294.
  • 10
    Becker AE. Body, Self, and Society: The View from Fiji. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia, PA, 1995.
  • 11
    Mavoa H, McCabe MP. Sociocultural factors relating to Tongans' and Indigenous Fijians' patterns of eating, physical activity and body size. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2008; 17: 375384.
  • 12
    Pollock N. These Roots Remain: Food Habits in Islands of the Central and Eastern Pacific. Institute of Polynesian Studies: Laie, HI, 1992.
  • 13
    Evans M, Sinclair RC, Fusimalohi C, Laiva AV, Freeman M. Consumption of traditional versus imported foods in Tonga: implications for programs designed to reduce diet-related non-communicable diseases in developing countries. Ecol Food Nutr 2003; 42: 153176.
  • 14
    Swinburn BA, de Silva-Sanigorski AM. Where to from here for preventing childhood obesity: an international perspective. Obesity 2010; 18: S4S7.
  • 15
    Swinburn B. Obesity prevention in children and adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2009; 18: 209223.
  • 16
    Brown T, Summerbell C. Systematic review of school-based interventions that focus on changing dietary intake and physical activity levels to prevent childhood obesity: an update to the obesity guidance produced by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Obes Rev 2009; 10: 110141.
  • 17
    Doak CM, Visscher TL, Renders CM, Seidell JC. The prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a review of interventions and programmes. Obes Rev 2006; 7: 111136.
  • 18
    Katz DL, O'Connell M, Njike VY, Yeh MC, Nawaz H. Strategies for the prevention and control of obesity in the school setting: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Obes 2008; 32: 17801789.
  • 19
    Fotu K, Moodie M, Mavoa H, Pomana S, Schultz J, Swinburn BA. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention: an adolescent obesity prevention project in Tonga. BMC Public Health 2011. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-284
  • 20
    Schultz J, Utter J, Mathews L, Cama T, Mavoa H, Swinburn B. The Pacific OPIC project (Obesity Prevention In Communities): action plans and interventions. Pac Health Dialog 2007; 14: 147154.
  • 21
    Swinburn B, Pryor J, McCabe MP, Carter R, de Courten M, Schaaf D et al. The Pacific OPIC project (Obesity Prevention In Communities) – objectives and designs. Pac Health Dialog 2007; 14: 139146.
  • 22
    Swinburn BA, Millar L, Utter J, Kremer P, Moodie M, Mavoa H et al. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project: project overview and methods. Obes Rev 2011; 12(Suppl. 2): 311.
  • 23
    Hawthorne G, Richardson J, Osborne R. The Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) instrument: a psychometric measure of health-related quality of life. Qual Life Res 1999; 8: 209224.
  • 24
    Moodie M, Richardson J, Rankin B, Sinha K, Iezzi A. Predicting time trade-off health state valuations of adolescents in four Pacific countries using the AQoL-6D instrument. Value Health 2010; 43: 10141027.
  • 25
    Varni JW, Seid M, Kurtin PS. PedsQL 4.0: reliability and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 4.0 generic core scales in healthy and patient populations. Med Care 2001; 39: 800812.
  • 26
    Varni JW, Seid M, Rode CA. The PedsQL: measurement model for the pediatric quality of life inventory. Med Care 1999; 37: 126139.
  • 27
    World Health Organization. WHO Reference 2007; Growth Reference Data for 5–19 Years. WHO: Geneva, 2010.
  • 28
    Sluyter JD, Schaaf D, Scragg RKR, Plank LD. Prediction of fatness by standing 8-electrode bioimpedance: a multiethnic adolescent population. Obesity 2010; 18: 183189.
  • 29
    Mathews L, Kremer P, Sanigorski A, Simmons A, Nichols M, Moodie M et al. Nutrition and physical activity in children and adolescents: Report 1: methods and tools. In: (Victoria) DoHS (ed.). Sentinel Site Series. Deakin University: Geelong, 2009. [WWW document]. URL (accessed February 2010).
  • 30
    Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using Multivariate Statistics, 5th edn. Pearson/Allyn & Bacon: Boston, MA, 2007.
  • 31
    Newcombe RG. Interval estimation for the difference between independent proportions: comparison of eleven methods. Stat Med 1998; 17: 873890.
  • 32
    Singh AS, Paw M, Brug J, van Mechelen W. Dutch obesity intervention in teenagers effectiveness of a school-based program on body composition and behavior. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2009; 163: 309317.
  • 33
    Cacavas K, Mavoa H, Kremer P, Malakellis M, Fotu K, Swinburn B et al. Tongan adolescents' eating patterns: opportunities for intervention. Asia Pac J Public Health 2011; 23: 2433.
  • 34
    Mavoa H. The ‘C’ factor: cultural underpinnings of food, eating and body size. International Congress on Obesity (10th, 2006, Sydney, NSW). ICMS Australasia Pty Ltd: Sydney, NSW, p. 8, 2006.
  • 35
    McCabe MP, Mavoa H, Ricciardelli L, Schultz JT, Waqa G, Fotu KF. Socio-cultural agents and their impact on body image and body change strategies among adolescents in Fiji, Tonga, Tongans in New Zealand and Australia. Obes Rev 2011; 12(Suppl. 2): 6167.
  • 36
    Mavoa H, Waqa G, Fotu K. Patterns of physical activity for adolescent girls in Fiji and Tonga. Joint Conference of the Australian Psychological Society and the New Zealand Psychological Society. APS and NZPsS 2006: The Abstracts of the 2006 Joint Conference of the Australian Psychological Society and the New Zealand Psychological Society: Auckland, New Zealand, 162–163, 2006.
  • 37
    Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Leon AS, Jacobs DR, Montoye HJ, Sallis JF et al. Compendium of Physical Activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993; 25: 7180.
  • 38
    Schultz JT, Moodie MP, Mavoa H, Utter J, Snowdon W, McCabe M et al. Experiences and challenges in implementing complex community-based research: the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities (OPIC) project. Obes Rev 2011; 12(Suppl. 2): 1219.
  • 39
    Robinson TN, Sirard JR. Preventing childhood obesity: a solution-oriented research paradigm. Am J Prev Med 2005; 28: 194201.
  • 40
    The Ministry of Health. Tonga National Strategy to Prevent and Control NCD. The Ministry of Health: Nuku'alofa, 2010.