The expanding burden of cardiometabolic risk in China: the China Health and Nutrition Survey

Authors

  • S. Yan,

    1. Beijing Homa Biological Engineering Co., Ltd, Beijing, China
    2. Department of Laboratory Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China
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  • J. Li,

    1. Department of Laboratory Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China
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  • S. Li,

    1. Department of Laboratory Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China
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  • B. Zhang,

    1. National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
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  • S. Du,

    1. Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
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  • P. Gordon-Larsen,

    1. Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
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  • L. Adair,

    1. Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
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  • B. Popkin

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
      BM Popkin, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, 123 W. Franklin St., Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA. E-mail: popkin@unc.edu
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BM Popkin, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, 123 W. Franklin St., Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA. E-mail: popkin@unc.edu

Summary

China faces a major increase in cardiovascular disease, yet there is limited population-based data on risk factors, particularly in children. Fasting blood samples, anthropometry and blood pressure were collected on 9,244 children and adults aged ≥7 years in late 2009 as part of the national China Health and Nutrition Survey. Prevalent overweight, elevated blood pressure, and cardiometabolic risk factors: glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are presented. We found that 11% of Chinese children and 30% of Chinese adults are overweight. Rates of diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and inflammation are high and increased with age and were associated with urbanization. Approximately 42% of children have at least one of the following: pre-diabetes or diabetes, hypertension, high TC, LDL-C, TG, and CRP and low HDL-C, as do 70% men and 60% women aged 18–40 years and >90% of men and women ≥60 years. In sum, the HbA1c findings suggest that as many as 27.7 million Chinese children and 334 million Chinese adults may be pre-diabetic or diabetic. The high prevalence in less urban areas and across all income levels suggests that cardiometabolic risk is pervasive across rural and urban China.

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