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Keywords:

  • corporate governance;
  • collective action;
  • self-help organizations;
  • Germany

ABSTRACT: Investor apathy by private retail investors and highly diversified institutional investors is often blamed for poor managerial accountability and control of majority investors. Attempts to encourage shareholder activism tend to focus on large institutional investors and ignore retail investors. However, in Germany associations of private retail investors play an increasingly important role in organizing collective shareholder action and defining minority shareholder interests. The German example highlights a possible alternative to the US and UK model of shareholder activism, which is dominated by institutional investors.