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Keywords:

  • Behavioral geography;
  • Cognitive processes;
  • Educational geography;
  • Learning;
  • Map reading;
  • Photo interpretation

ABSTRACT Cross-cultural and developmental research on the untaught mapping abilities of children aged five through ten suggests that mapping behavior is a normal and important process in human development, and that map learning begins long before the child encounters formal geography and cartography. The results of this research may lead to new strategies in early geographic education and new insights on early geographic learning.