This paper is dedicated to the memory of Stella S-F. Louie, a devoted student of geography and my long-time loyal comrade who suddenly met death on December 12, 1975, at the beginning of an immensely promising career. The comments in this paper are based primarily on the work of western geographers, and they exclude the important contributions of the Socialist countries and the Orient. I gratefully acknowledge the useful comments of Jim Burt, Janis Leibs, Stella Louie, Hoi-ying Ng, Patricia O'Rourke, and Cort Willmott.
CLIMATOLOGY FOR GEOGRAPHERS*
Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2005
Annals of the Association of American Geographers
Volume 66, Issue 2, pages 199–220, June 1976
How to Cite
TERJUNG, W. H. (1976), CLIMATOLOGY FOR GEOGRAPHERS. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 66: 199–220. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8306.1976.tb01086.x
There has been a steady decline in the number of articles concerning climate and weather as a percentage of articles published in major American geographical journals; Human Response to Weather and Climate: Geographical Contributions,” Geographical Review, Vol. 58 (1968), pp. 262–80., , and , “
R. N. Kickert, “An Analysis of Research Trends Among Geographers' Publications on Climatic Phenomena Internationally,” unpublished master's thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 1969.
Technology Observed: Attitudes of a Wary Public,” Science, Vol. 188 (1975), pp. 121–127; and , “The Scientist in Society: Inspiration and Obligation,” American Scientist, Vol. 63 (1975), pp. 144–49.and , “
For the urgency of such an approach in regard to air pollution legislation see, for instance, C. O. Jones, Clean Air: The Policies and Politics of Pollution Control (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1975).
For instance, R. Golledge and D. Amedeo, “On Laws in Geography,”Annals, Association of American Geographers, Vol. 58 (1968), pp. 760–74, show that attempts toward obtaining knowledge involve more complex thinking procedures than simply data collection and summarization.
For instance, see R. J. Chorley and P. Haggett, Models in Geography (London: Methuen, 1967); and L. von Bertalanffy, Problems of Life: An Evaluation of Modern Biological and Scientific Thought (New York: Harper, 1960).
C. W. Thornthwaite, “The Task Ahead,”Annals, Association of American Geographers, Vol. 51 (1961), pp. 345–56.
D. B. Carter, T. H. Schmudde, and D. M. Sharpe, The Interface as a Working Environment: A Purpose for Physical Geography, Commission on College Geography Technical Paper No. 7 (Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1972).
I owe a great debt to the creative ideas of R. J. Chorley and B. A. Kennedy, Physical Geography: A Systems Approach (London: Prentice-Hall International, 1971).
Kickert, op. cit., footnote 2, p. 29.
This review was based mainly on western geographical journals (Annals, Association of American Geographers; Geographical Review; Geografiska Annaler; Transactions, Institute of British Geographers; Canadian Geographer; Erdkunde; New Zealand Geographer; Australian Geographical Studies; and Area). It was incomplete to the extent that geographers have contributed on the subject to other geographical journals and literature outside the field of geography.
For excellent discussions see Chorley and Kennedy, op. cit., footnote 9; R. J. Chorley, “The Role and Relations of Physical Geography,” in C. Board, R. J. Chorley, P. Haggett, and D. R. Stoddart, eds., Progress in Geography (London: Edward Arnold, 1971), pp. 87–109.
D. Harvey, Explanation in Geography (London: Edward Arnold, 1969), p. 79.
These morphological components have to be visualized not only along the x and y coordinates, but also along the vertical z axis at many levels, reaching far into the atmosphere.
See, for instance, The Effect of Solar Radiation Changes on the Climate of the Earth,” Tellus, Vol. 21 (1969), pp. 611–19; and , “A Global Climate Model Based on the Energy Balance of the Earth-Atmosphere System,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 8 (1969), pp. 392–400. The “higher-order-closure” technique might also become an attractive alternative method for calculating turbulent flow structure. It is much faster than three-dimensional simulation because one calculates only ensemble average statistics rather than the instantaneous details of the randomly fluctuating fields. For initial efforts, see. for instance, , “The Understanding and Prediction of Turbulent Flow,” Aeronautical Journal, Vol. 76 (1972), pp. 403–18; C. DuP. Donaldson, “Construction of a Dynamic Model of the Production of Atmospheric Turbulence and the Dispersal of Atmospheric Pollutants,” in D. A. Haugen, ed., Workshop on Micrometeorology (Boston: American Meteorological Society, 1973), pp. 313–92; and and , “The Evolution of a Convective Planetary Boundary Layer—A Higher-Order-Closure Model Study,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 7 (1974), pp. 289–308., “
For instance, see Energy Exchange in Plant Canopies,” Ecology, Vol. 52 (1971), pp. 855–61; and , , , and , “A Model Describing Photosynthesis in Terms of Gas Diffusion and Enzyme Kinetics,” Planta, Vol. 98 (1971), pp. 195–220.and , “
An excellent account of many of these studies has been given in R. G. Barry and A. H. Perry, Synoptic Climatology: Methods and Applications (London: Methuen, 1973).
For instance, see the pioneer effort by A Statistical Model for the Explanatory Description of Large-Scale Time and Spatial Climate,” Canadian Geographer, Vol. 11 (1967), pp. 67–86., “
I have refrained from quoting specific studies, especially in this category, because of the large volume of literature involved.
Sewell, Kates, and Phillips, op. cit., footnote 1; W. R. D. Sewell, ed., Human Dimensions of the Atmosphere (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968); and W. J. Maunder, The Value of the Weather (London: Methuen, 1970).
Although many of the cited studies belong properly to the first two categories of methodology, up to 1968 the literature of category 3 (and the following category 4) is adequately presented in D. H. Miller, A Survey Course: The Energy and Mass Budget at the Surface of the Earth, Commission on College Geography, General Series, No. 7 (Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1968). More recently the following articles have appeared in the selected journals: W. R. Rouse and R. G. Wilson, “Time and Space Variations in the Radiant Energy Fluxes over Sloping Forested Terrain and their Influence on Seasonal Heat and Water Balance at a Middle Latitude Site,”Geografiska Annaler, Vol. 51A (1969), pp. 160–75; W. H. Terjung and collaborators, “The Energy Balance Climatology of a City-Man System,”Annals, Association of American Geographers, Vol. 60 (1970), pp. 466–92; Urban Energy Balance Climatology,” Geographical Review, Vol. 60 (1970), pp. 31–53; , , and , “A Night-time Energy and Moisture Budget in Death Valley, California, in Mid-August,” Geografiska Annaler, Vol. 52A (1970), pp. 160–73; and , “The Heat and Water Balance of Southern Ontario According to the Budyko Method,” Canadian Geographer, Vol. 15 (1971), pp. 262–86; and , “Potential Solar Radiation on Man,” Annals, Association of American Geographers, Vol. 61 (1971), pp. 481–500; , “Microclimatic Variations in a Downtown Urban Environment,” Geografiska Annaler, Vol. 55A (1973), pp. 123–36; , “Zur Klimatologie der Strahlungsbilanz an der Erdoberfläche,” Erdkunde, Vol. 27 (1973), pp, 1–9; , “Contribution of the Monthly Turbulent Heat Flux to the Energy Balance of Lake Ontario,” Canadian Geographer, Vol. 17 (1973), pp. 354–72; and , “Solar Radiation and Urban Heat Islands,” Annals, Association of American Geographers, Vol. 63 (1973), pp. 181–207; and , “Estimating Evapotranspiration by Homoclimates,” Geographical Review, Vol. 65 (1975), pp. 37–48., “
This paper does not attempt a thorough review of the literature (geography authors); only a few, typical studies are cited: Energy Exchanges and the General Circulation,” Geography, Vol. 50 (1965), pp. 229–41; and , “A Method of Calculating the Direct Shortwave Radiation Income on Slopes,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 7 (1968), pp. 796–800; and , “Potential Evapotranspiration at Simcoe, Southern Ontario,” Archiv für Meteorologie, Geophysik und Bioklimatologie, Serie B, Vol. 16 (1968), pp. 391–417; , “Energy Budget of Man at High Altitudes,” International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 14 (1970), pp. 13–43; , “Turbulent Transport Near the Ground in Stable Conditions,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 9 (1970), pp. 778–86; , “Actual, Potential and Equilibrium Evaporation for a Beanfield in Southern Ontario,” Agricultural Meterology, Vol. 10 (1972), pp. 331–48; S. Hastenrath and R. F. Fuggle, Atmospheric Heat Budget Studies, Occasional Paper No. 8 (Johannesburg: Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, 1972); and , “Potential Solar Radiation on Plant Shapes,” International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 16 (1972), pp. 25–43; and , “Comparison of Urban/Rural Counter and Net Radiation at Night,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 2 (1972), pp. 290–308; and , “Moisture and Temperature Limits of the Equilibrium Evapotranspiration Model,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 11 (1972), pp. 436–42; and , “Equilibrium, Potential and Actual Evaporation from Cropped Surfaces in Southern Ontario,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 12 (1973), pp. 649–57; and , “A Solar Radiation Model for Sub-Arctic Woodlands,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 12 (1973), pp. 1259–66; and , “Eddy-Correlation Measurement of Sensible Heat Flux over a Grass Surface,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 7 (1974), pp. 151–63; , “Surface and Atmospheric Controls on the Heating Coefficient,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 8 (1975), pp. 110–23; , “The Energy Budget of Man: Variations with Aspect in a Downtown Urban Environment,” International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 19 (1975), pp. 2–13; M. I. Budyko, Climate and Life (New York: Academic Press, 1974), an excellent review of the work of Soviet geographers; and , “Windshear, Temperature Gradient, and Eddy Diffusivity over Growing Crop,” Archiv für Meteorologie, Geophysik und Bioklimatologie, Serie B, Vol. 23 (1974), pp. 65–76., “
The journals which frequently contain articles of category 3 (and category 4) are Advances in Agronomy, Agricultural Meteorology, Agronomy Journal, Archiv für Meteorologie, Geophysik und Bioklimatologie, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, International Journal of Biometeorology, Journal of Applied Meteorology, Monthly Weather Review, Royal Meteorological Society Quarterly Journal, Tellus, and Water Resources Research.
Chorley and Kennedy, op. cit., footnote 9, pp. 93–116.
An easily understood version of these concepts appears in J. N. Rayner, Conservation, Equilibrium, and Feedback Applied to Atmospheric and Fluvial Processes, Commission on College Geography Resource Paper 15 (Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1972).
E. N. Lorenz, The Nature and Theory of the General Circulation of the Atmosphere (Geneva: World Meteorological Organization, 1967), p. 4.
For the relevance and importance of such modeling in regard to the analysis of climatic change, see Modeling the Climate: A New Sense of Urgency,” Science, Vol. 185 (1974), pp. 1145–47., “
For finite difference methods, see, for instance, R. D. Richtmyer, Difference Methods for Initial-Value Problems (New York: Interscience Publishers, 1957). A more elementary introduction is F. Kreith, Principles of Heat Transfer (New York: Intext Educational Publishers, 1973).
The literature is large, and only a few selections can be cited: Very Long Term Integration of the Primitive Equations of Atmospheric Motion: An Experiment in Climate Simulation,” Meteorological Monographs, Vol. 8 (1968), pp. 20–36; , , , and , “Simulated Climatology of a General Circulation Model with a Hydrological Cycle. III. Effects of Increased Horizontal Computational Resolution,” Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 98 (1970), pp. 175–212; J. E. Oliger, R. E. Wellk, A. Kasahara, and W. M. Washington, “Description of NCAR Global Circulation Model,”NCAR-TN/STR-56 (Boulder, Colorado: National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1970); and , “Climate Models in Palaeoclimatic Reconstruction,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeocology, Vol. 17 (1975), pp. 123–37., “
Carter, Schmudde, and Sharpe, op. cit., footnote 8.
For discussions of the PBL, see O. G. Sutton, Micrometeorology (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973); C. H. B. Priestley, Turbulent Transfer in the Lower Atmosphere (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959); E. J. Plate, Aerodynamic Characteristics of Atmospheric Boundary Layers (Springfield, Virginia: National Technical Information Service, 1971); D. A. Haugen, ed., Workshop on Micrometeorology (Boston: American Meteorological Society, 1973); H. Schlichting, Boundary Layer Theory (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968); F. Wippermann, The Planetary Boundary Layer of the Atmosphere (Offenbach: Deutscher Wetterdienst, 1973); and H. Tennekes and J. L. Lumley, A First Course in Turbulence (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1972). More elementary introductions include Kreith, op. cit., footnote 28; R. E. Munn, Descriptive Micrometeorology (New York: Academic Press, 1966); J. L. Monteith, Principles of Environmental Physics (New York: American Elsevier, 1973); W. P. Lowry, Weather and Life (New York: Academic Press, 1969); and N. J. Rosenberg, Microclimate: The Biological Environment (New York: J. Wiley & Sons, 1974). For discussions and reviews of the urban PBL, see T. R. Oke, Review of Urban Climatology (Geneva: World Meteorological Organization, 1974).
M. A. Estoque, “Numerical Modeling of the Planetary Boundary Layer,” in Haugen, ed., op. cit., footnote 31, pp. 217–70.
For exceptions, when geographers were able to use such complex numerical models, see Simulation of the Atmospheric Circulation Using the NCAR Global Circulation Model with Ice Age Boundary Conditions,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 13 (1974), pp. 305–17; , “Conditions Favoring Glacierization and Deglacierization in North America from a Climatological Viewpoint,” Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 5 (1973), pp. 171–84; and G. L. Potter, “Anthropogenic Climate Modification: Modeling the Removal of the Tropical Rainforest,” unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles, 1975., , and , “
Of Atoms, Mountains, and Stars: A Study in Qualitative Physics,” Science, Vol. 187 (1975), pp. 605–12., “
F. L. Milthorpe, “Plant Growth and the Weather,” Inaugural Lecture, University of Nottingham, 1955, as quoted in J. L. Monteith and J. F. Elston, “Microclimatology and Corn Production,” in P. F. Wareing and J. P. Cooper, eds., Potential Crop Production (London: Heinemann Educational Books, 1971), pp. 23–42.
Atmospheric Turbidity and Air Pollution in Greater Cincinnati,” Geographical Review, Vol. 61 (1971), pp. 573–94; and , “The Boreal Bioclimates,” Geographical Review, Vol. 62 (1972), pp. 333–65; and and , “Energy Budget and Photosynthesis of Canopy Leaves,” Annals, Association of American Geographers, Vol. 63 (1973), pp. 109–30., “
I apologize to those whose studies have inadvertently been overlooked in this rather casual review: Calculations of the Transpiration Rate and Temperature of a Leaf,” Archiv für Meteorologie, Geophysik und Bioklimatologie, Serie B, Vol. 13 (1964), pp. 391–99; , “Assessment of Thermal Stress from Energy Balance Considerations,” Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 21 (1966), pp. 1207–17; , “Further Studies of the Heat Transfer from a Leaf,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 42 (1967), pp. 651–58; W. P. Lowry, A Rudimentary Energy Budget Model for Man, Technical Note No. 3 (Corvallis: Oregon State University, 1970), pp. 1–8; and , “Comparison of the Comfort Conditions in Different Urban and Suburban Microenvironments,” International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 15 (1971), pp. 41–54; , “A Numerical Surface Climate Simulator,” Geographical Analysis, Vol. 3 (1971), pp. 379–93; L. O. Myrup and D. L. Morgan, Numerical Model of the Urban Atmosphere, Volume I, The City-Surface Interface, Contributions in Atmospheric Science No. 4 (Davis: University of California, 1972); , “Leaf Temperatures, Diffusion Resistances, and Transpiration,” Agricultural Meteorology, Vol. 10 (1972), pp. 365–82; , “A Reconnaissance Experiment in Mapping and Modeling the Effect of Land Use on Urban Thermal Regimes,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 11 (1972), pp. 1369–73; , “Atmospheric Pollution and Global Climatic Change,” Ecology, Vol. 53 (1972), pp. 908–14; and , “The Observation and Simulation of Diurnal Evaporation Contrast in an Alpine Pass,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 12 (1973), pp. 1134–43; , “Application of Climatonomy to an Alpine Valley,” New Zealand Journal of Science, Vol. 16 (1973), pp. 811–23; and , “A Climatic Model of Urban Energy Budgets,” Geographical Analysis, Vol. 6 (1974), pp. 341–67; and , “Comfort of Man in the City: An Energy Balance Model of Man-Environmental Coupling,” International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 18 (1974), pp. 184–98; Budyko, op. cit., footnote 22, pp. 371–438; and W. H. Terjung, S. S-F. Louie, and P. A. O'Rourke, “Seasonality Based Photosynthesis Model Predicting World Productivity,” Symposium on Current Problems and Trends in Phenology and Seasonality Research and Plant Climate Models, 7th Congress of the International Society of Biometeorology, 17–23 August 1975, College Park, Md., “
It is impossible even to begin to list the many excellent articles in this interdisciplinary field. I want to make an exception with the geographically relevant work of Evapotranspiration Climatonomy II: Refinement of Parameterization, Exemplified by Application to the Mabacan River Watershed,” Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 101 (1973), pp. 636–49.and , “
Chorley and Kennedy, op. cit., footnote 9, pp. 126–59.
For instance, How Should We Treat Our Environment Science, Vol. 162 (1970), pp. 352–55., “
For instance, D. Daetz and R. H. Pantell, eds., Environmental Modeling: Analysis and Management (Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, 1974); A Hierarchical Goal-Programming Approach to Environmental Land Use Management,” Geographical Analysis, Vol. 7 (1975), pp. 121–30; and , “Some Attempts to Estimate the Economic Response of Weather Information,” Weather, Vol. 26 (1971), pp. 60–68., , , and , “
T. O'Riordan, “Environmental Management,” in Board et al., op. cit., footnote 12, pp. 173–231; and Sewell, op. cit., footnote 20.
Pest Management,” Science, Vol. 187 (1975), pp. 1045–52., , and , “
Production, Consumption, and Externalities,” American Economic Review, Vol. 59 (1969), pp. 282–97.and , “
W. H. Terjung, “Climatic Modification,” in I. R. Manners and M. W. Mikesell, eds., Perspectives on Environment, Commission on College Geography General Series, 13 (Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1974), pp. 105–51.
Chorley and Kennedy, op. cit., footnote 9, pp. 308–43.
Theoretical Ecology: Beginnings of a Predictive Science,” Science, Vol. 183 (1974), pp. 400–01 and 450; and , “On the Principles of Thermodynamics in Ecology,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, Vol. 4 (1973), pp. 329–57. An excellent review of methods related to the bioclimatic aspects of ecosystems appears in R. E. Munn, Biometeorological Methods (New York: Academic Press, 1970)., “
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ABSTRACT Climatology is reviewed and redefined in terms of relevance to geography, and a programmatic statement for future research is presented. Instead of enumerating substantive areas, physical geography is defined and ranked according to five levels of methodology and attendant philosophy. The essence of geographical climatology is the analysis and description of process-response systems of importance to mankind occurring within the planetary boundary layer, interface, and substrates. The future of a climatology useful to geographers appears to lie in the numerical modeling of such systems.