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Chongqing: Beyond the latecomer advantage 重庆:超越后发优势

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Abstract

Abstract

The spectacular growth of Chinese cities since the 1980s is often theorised as reflecting the advantages of latecomer development (ALD). ALD has been more effective in cosmopolitan, globally accessible coastal cities than outer cities. As leading cities, like Shanghai, close the development gap, the potential for ‘easy’ ALD growth falls off rapidly. Because institution building is more difficult than firm-based growth, ALD strategies may generate rapid short-term economic growth but not sustainable development. Accordingly, Chongqing municipality, with a population of 33 million, in West China, is pursuing a beyond latecomer advantage model. This is characterised by: (i) reducing poverty and rural-urban disparity through accelerated urbanisation, rural-urban integration and emphasising human resource development; (ii) upgrading the value added of Chongqing's economy through targeting of FDI and incentives to local start-ups; (iii) endogenous development, reducing risks from external shocks; (iv) Hukou reform; (v) establishing a land use conversion certificate market to rationalise land use; (vi) emphasis on morality to address crime/corruption; (vii) recognition of the importance of amenity in attracting investment and talent; and (viii) establishing a longer developmental time perspective. This paper explores this Chongqing model in detail.

摘要

中国自20世纪80年代以来所取得的辉煌经济增长,在很大程度上是基于其引进外资和利用后发优势来实现的。而后发优势的推进,在国际化大都市和那些拥有全球通达性的沿海城市会更为有效。作为先锋性城市,如上海等,随着与全球城市发展的差距日益缩小,“易于”实现后发优势的潜力就会迅速消失,这是因为制度建设要比以企业为基础的经济增长更难推进,因此后发优势或许能带来快速的短期经济增长,但并不能带来当然的可持续发展。有鉴于此,重庆市,这座拥有3300万人口的中国西部城市,正在寻找一条“超越后发优势”的发展道路。这一模式目前正在成长中,表现出如下特征:(1)通过加快城市化进程、城乡融合发展和强调人力资本开发,减少贫困和城乡差别;(2)通过引进外资和刺激本地企业创业,提升重庆市的经济附加值;(3)通过内生性发展,减少外部动荡所引起的风险;(4)通过农村集体土地资产的创新性盘活,有效地进行户籍改革;(5)通过建立土地市场的流转证制度,优化城乡土地的利用效率;(6)通过强调道德建设和反腐倡廉以及强有力的打击犯罪,提升全体市民的向心力和士气;(7)通过强调环境质量在吸引投资和人才方面的重要作用,加快外向型和宜居型城市的发展步伐;(8)通过建立公务员服务质量评价体系,倡导长期发展观,以推进经济社会发展的持续平衡性。

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