• weed damage;
  • integrated weed management;
  • multivariate probit model;
  • propensity score matching;
  • Punjab;
  • Pakistan
  • C31;
  • Q16

In Pakistan, weeds are a serious problem for the cotton–wheat cropping system, and they are causing even more damage than insects. The damage caused by weeds varies in the range of 15–30 percent. Farmers in Pakistan carry out several practices to control weeds, including hoeing, herbicide application and crop rotation. Farmers integrate different weed management practices; hence, in the present study, the multivariate probit model is used in an analysis of cotton farmers' joint decision-making. The propensity score matching results indicate that farmers adopting integrating weed management practices have higher demand for labor, higher yields, higher household income and higher net returns from the cotton crop.