Chinese child-rearing beliefs: Key dimensions and contributions to the development of culture-appropriate assessment


Eli Lieber, UCLA/NPI, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioural Sciences, Center for Culture and Health, 760 Westwood Plaza, Box 62, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1759, USA. Email:


Socio-cultural perspectives explain inconsistency in Chinese child-rearing research when imported methods and concepts are applied. We sought to elucidate child-rearing belief constructs relevant to Chinese contexts. Exploratory factor analysis identified items representing child-rearing concepts both imported and indigenous to Chinese culture and forming four dimensions: Training, Shame, Authoritative, and Autonomy. Data from parents of preschool-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 228) and Taiwan (N = 213) were subject to confirmatory factor and scale internal consistency analyses. Results support the conceptual and psychometric coherence of each subscale. Discussion of findings focuses on the benefits of culturally responsive methodology and the potential utility of the scales in child-rearing research with Chinese and other Confucian cultural populations.