Definitions of bullying: Age and sex differences in a Turkish sample


Zehra Ucanok, Hacettepe University, Department of Psychology, Beytepe, Ankara 06800, Turkey. Email:


The aim of the present study was to investigate the meaning profile of the Turkish term ‘zorbalık’, which is considered the most similar to the English word ‘bullying’, and of five other terms in Turkish that describe bullying-like behaviours. We used the cartoon methodology of a previous study, but with an expanded task of 40 stick-figure cartoons. These cartoons were shown to 124 students (70 girls and 54 boys), in fourth grade (M = 9.3 years) and eighth grade (M = 13.3 years). Our findings indicated four major clusters: neutral or non-aggressive, physically aggressive, verbally aggressive, and social exclusion, with the physically-aggressive cluster splitting into two clusters, physical bullying and other physical aggression, in the older students.