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Keywords:

  • counting;
  • crowd estimation;
  • flow model

Summary

It is of interest to estimate the size of a crowd in a demonstration. We propose a practical method to obtain an estimate of the size of the crowd and its standard error. This method has been implemented in practice and, compared with other counting methods, is found to be more efficient, more timely and have less scope for bias. The method described in this paper was motivated by the annual 1 July demonstrations in Hong Kong, and data from the 2006 demonstration are used as an example of the proposed method.