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Footnotes
  • 1

    Editorial, Australian, 18 April 2011.

  • 2

    Rob Taylor and James Grubel, “Australia unveils biggest carbon-reduction scheme outside Europe”, Reuters, 10 July 2011.

  • 3

    Tim Lester, Georgina Robinson and AAP, “Gillard assures Obama of support in war”, Sydney Morning Herald, 25 June 2010.

  • 4

    Brad Norington, “Gillard makes a mark in the footy Oval Office”, Australian, 9 March 2011.

  • 5

    Michelle Grattan, “Gillard and Obama talk AFL, Vegemite – and a little bit of politics”, Age, 8 March 2011.

  • 6

    Ibid.

  • 7

    AAP, “Obama and Gillard reaffirm close ties at White House”, Australian, 8 March 2011.

  • 8

    Ibid.

  • 9

    Mark Kenny, “Barack Obama gives Vegemite a pasting during Julia Gillard's visit to US”, Adelaide Now, 8 March 2011.

  • 10

    Ibid.

  • 11

    AAP, “Obama and Gillard affirm close ties at White House”.

  • 12

    Donna Cassata, “Australian PM pledges cooperation with US”, Washington Post, 9 March 2011.

  • 13

    Matthew Franklin, “Ovations and flattery in Julia Gillard's speech to US Congress”, Australian, 10 March 2011.

  • 14

    Mark Kenny, “Julia Gillard's speech in the US Congress marks a new era”, Herald Sun, 10 March 2011.

  • 15

    AAP, “US Congress hails Gillard speech”, SBS, 10 March 2011.

  • 16

    Rowan Callick, “Gillard's stern Asian challenge”, Australian, 18 April 2011.

  • 17

    Kenny, “Julia Gillard's speech in the US Congress marks a new era”.

  • 18

    Mark Kenny, “Julia Gillard pledges support for the US in Congress address”, Daily Telegraph, 10 March 2011.

  • 19

    Franklin, “Ovations and flattery in Julia Gillard's speech to US Congress”.

  • 20

    Mark Kenny, “Julia Gillard pledges support for the US in Congress address”, Daily Telegraph, 10 March 2011.

  • 21

    Phillip Coorey, “Gillard pushes the right buttons as she woos the US”, Sydney Morning Herald, 10 March 2011.

  • 22

    Ibid.

  • 23

    Matthew Franklin, “Julia Gillard in Washington urges US to ‘keep up’ global role”, Australian, 9 March 2011.

  • 24

    AAP, “Rudd in Australian UN bid”, Sydney Morning Herald, 30 March 2008.

  • 25

    Philip Coorey, “UN pitch, carbon blitz and a beer twist tops off tour”, Sydney Morning Herald, 11 March 2011.

  • 26

    Ibid.

  • 27

    Jane Cowan, “Gillard pushes Australia's bid for UN seat”, ABC, 11 March 2011.

  • 28

    Paul Osborne, “Gillard ends US trip confident of UN seat”, Sydney Morning Herald, 11 March 2011.

  • 29

    Ibid.

  • 30

    Phillip Coorey and Jason Koutsoukis, “Gillard in open conflict with Rudd”, Sydney Morning Herald, 11 March 2011.

  • 31

    Daniel Flitton, “Barnstormer Rudd flies solo on Libya flight zone”, Age, 11 March 2011.

  • 32

    Joe Kelly and Matthew Franklin, “Gillard and Rudd deny rift over Libya, but Downer says their relationship is not working”, Australian, 11 March 2011.

  • 33

    Dennis Shanahan, “Allies confused by Australia's ‘two foreign policies”’, Australian, 12 March 2011.

  • 34

    Michelle Grattan and Jason Koutsoukis, “Gillard, Rudd at odds over Libya”, Age, 11 March 2011.

  • 35

    Jeremy Thompson, “Gillard dismisses claims of Libya rift with Rudd”, ABC News, 11 March 2011.

  • 36

    Cited in Ben Packham, “Kevin Rudd hopes no-fly zone is not too late to save Libyan people”, Australian, 18 March 2011.

  • 37

    “US to ease military action in Libya”, ABC “Asia Pacific News”, 21 March 2011.

  • 38

    Richard Willingham, “Australia funding Libyan evacuation ship, reveals Rudd”, Age, 28 April 2011.

  • 39

    “Julia Gillard vows Australia's resolve in Afghanistan will not waver”, Herald Sun, 8 June 2011.

  • 40

    AAP, “Time to rethink Afghanistan, says Greens leader Bob Brown”, Herald Sun, 3 May 2011.

  • 41

    James Massola and Lanai Vasek, “Julia Gillard and defence chief stand firm on Afghan mission after another Digger killed”, Australian, 7 June 2011.

  • 42

    Ibid.

  • 43

    Mark Landler and Helene Cooper, “Obama will speed pullout from war in Afghanistan”, New York Times, 22 June 2011.

  • 44

    “Afghanistan troop reduction ‘modest’, says Cameron”, BBC, 4 July 2011.

  • 45

    AAP, “US withdrawal won't affect Australia's mission in Afghanistan – Gillard”, Herald Sun, 23 June 2011.

  • 46

    James Massola, “Defence is looking to shift its focus to protecting the oil and gas fields off north-west Australia”, Australian, 22 June 2011.

  • 47

    Brendan Nicholson, “Review will lead to closer US ties”, Australian, 22 June 2011.

  • 48

    Ibid.

  • 49

    Cited in Massola, “Defence is looking to shift its focus to protecting the oil and gas fields off north-west Australia”. For the view that Australia is developing a military hedging strategy against China, see Greg Sheridan, “Trade and defence: our China line”, Australian, 25 June 2011.

  • 50

    AAP, “Defence blowout turns to budget blowback”, Age, 10 May 2011.

  • 51

    Ibid.

  • 52

    Ibid.

  • 53

    “Japanese emperor thanks Australia”, AAP General News Wire, 20 April 2011.

  • 54

    Rowan Callick, “First bloke in wave of Chinese whispers”, Australian, 27 April 2011.

  • 55

    “Gillard meets Japanese parliamentarians”, AAP General News Wire, 20 April 2011.

  • 56

    “Gillard, Japanese PM pledge nuclear cooperation”, ABC News, 21 April 2011.

  • 57

    “Gillard meets Japanese parliamentarians”.

  • 58

    “Gillard travels from fundraiser to tsunami zone”, ABC News, 23 April 2011.

  • 59

    “Japanese may train with Australian troops: Gillard”, People's Daily, 23 April 2011.

  • 60

    “Gillard, Japanese PM pledge nuclear cooperation”.

  • 61

    “Prime Minister Julia Gillard has a whale of a time in Japan”, Daily Telegraph, 22 April 2011; see also “US must lift Asia presence, PM urges”, Australian, 23 April 2011.

  • 62

    “Gillard travels from fundraiser to tsunami zone”.

  • 63

    “PM visiting a disaster zone”, Daily Telegraph, 23 April 2011.

  • 64

    “Julia Gillard commemorates Korean War battle of Kapyong”, Sunday Telegraph, 24 April 2011.

  • 65

    “Gillard to raise tough topics in China”, AAP General News Wire, 25 April 2011.

  • 66

    “Gillard confident of S Korean trade deal”, ABC News, 25 April 2011.

  • 67

    “Julia Gillard wraps up North Asia tour”, Australian, 27 April 2011.

  • 68

    “Australia's Gillard meets with Chinese leaders”, Bloomberg Businessweek, AAP, 26 April 2011.

  • 69

    Cited in ibid.

  • 70

    Cited in “Julia Gillard seeks closer defence links to Chinese military”, Daily Telegraph, 28 April 2011.

  • 71

    Ibid.

  • 72

    See for example, Michael Sainsbury, “Brutal flipside of economic success”, Australian, 16 April 2011; “China denies knowledge of missing Aussie writer”, ABC News, 27 May 2011.

  • 73

    Andrew Shearer, “Gillard channels her inner Howard”, Australian, 28 April 2011; Rowan Callick, “Gillard saves some face with Asian diplomacy”, Australian, 30 April 2011. See also commentary prior to the trip in John Lee, “PM may trump Rudd in managing China”, Australian, 21 April 2011.

  • 74

    Callick, “Gillard saves some face with Asian diplomacy”.

  • 75

    Shearer, “Gillard channels her inner Howard”.

  • 76

    “Gillard won't meet the Dalai Lama”, ABC News, 21 June 2011.

  • 77

    Kevin Rudd, “Speech to make the opening of the Australian Embassy in Addis Ababa”, 26 January 2011, <http://www.foreignminister.gov.au/speeches/2011/kr_sp_110126.html>.

  • 78

    “Foreign Minister Kevin Rudd's $1 million power trip”, Daily Telegraph, 14 September 2011.

  • 79

    “Final Co-Chairs’ Statement. Fourth Bali regional ministerial conference on people smuggling, trafficking in persons and related transnational crime”, Bali, Indonesia, 29–30 March 2011, <http://www.baliprocess.net/index.asp?pageID=2145831461>.

  • 80

    Julia Gillard, “Joint Statement with the Prime Minister of Malaysia (Media Release, 7 May 2011) <http://www.pm.gov.au/press-office/joint-statement-prime-minister-malaysia>; “Draft Deal with Malaysia ‘struck”’, Australian, 14 July 2011.

  • 81

    Samantha Maiden, “Gillard gambles on refugees”, Sunday Herald Sun, 8 May 2011. See also Michael Grewcock, “Scum of the Earth? People-Smuggling, criminalisation and refugees”, Human Rights Defender, Vol. 19, 3 (2010); and Sharon Pickering, “Transnational Crime and Refugee Protection”, Social Justice, Vol. 34, 2 (2007).

  • 82

    Julia Gillard, “Joint Statement with the Prime Minister of Malaysia”.

  • 83

    “Draft deal with Malaysia ‘struck”’.

  • 84

    “Malaysia deal not our Pacific Solution, says Wayne Swan”, Herald Sun, 9 May 2011.

  • 85

    Ibid.

  • 86

    Refugee Council of Australia, “Malaysia's Appalling Rights Record Ignored in Refugee Transfer Deal”, Press Release, 8 May 2011, <http://www.refugeecouncil.org.au/news/releases/110507_Malaysia_transfer.pdf>.

  • 87
  • 88

    This leads to interesting questions about the focus of the Australian media's reporting on the issue in a wider analysis of the political response to the ‘people-swap’ agreement. “Malaysia deal not our Pacific Solution, says Wayne Swan”. See also Rudd comments in an interview with ABC “Lateline” on 4 July 2011. <http://www.foreignminister.gov.au/transcripts/2011/kr_tr_110704_lateline.html>.

  • 89

    “UN rights chief Navi Pillay flays ‘illegal’ refugee swap”, Australian, 24 May 2011.

  • 90

    “Unaccompanied asylum children to be sent to Malaysia”, Australian, 3 June 2011.

  • 91

    “Special rights for Malaysian refugees”, Australian, 9 June 2011.

  • 92

    Joe Kelly, “Acting Prime Minister Wayne Swan vows to get tough with Sydney's rioting detainees”, Australian, 22 April 2011.

  • 93

    For details of the Immigration detention reviews tabled in Parliament for the period under review, see the Ombudsman's Website online at: <http://www.ombudsman.gov.au/reports/immigration-detention-review/>.

  • 94

    “Julia Gillard's asylum-seeker solution in tatters”, Australian, 31 August 2011.

  • 95

    Comment by Senator Bob Brown, quoted in “Prime Minister Gillard trumpets five-for-one swap in people smuggling war”, Sunday Mail, 8 May 2011.

  • 96

    “UN rights chief Navi Pillay flays ‘illegal’ refugee swap”.

  • 97

    AAP, “Rise in cost of living ‘unsurprising’– Treasurer,”Australian, 27 April, 2011.

  • 98

    “Shaping a global solution,”Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, 2011.

  • 99

    AAP, “Carbon price to start July 2012: Gillard”, Age, 24 February 2011.

  • 100

    Ibid.

  • 101

    Cited in Phillip Hudson, “Julia Gillard strikes deal with Greens on carbon pricing”, Herald Sun, 24 February 2011.

  • 102

    Ibid.

  • 103

    Terry Brown, “Labor takes big hit over carbon tax, Newspoll reveals”, Herald Sun, 8 March 2011.

  • 104

    Cited in AAP, “Gillard rules out imposing carbon tax”, Sydney Morning Herald, 17 August 2010.

  • 105

    Matthew Franklin and Sid Maher, “Gillard seeks new climate consensus”, Australian, 23 July 2010.

  • 106

    Sid Maher and Dennis Shanahan, “Labor to impose carbon tax next year, ETS in 2015”, Australian, 12 February 2011.

  • 107

    Hudson, “Julia Gillard strikes deal with Greens on carbon pricing”.

  • 108

    Glenda Kwek, “Alan Jones lets rip at ‘Ju-liar’ Gillard”, Sydney Morning Herald, 25 February 2011.

  • 109

    John Birmingham, “Can Gillard do a Howard and sell us her tax?”, Age, 1 March 2011.

  • 110

    Hudson, “Julia Gillard strikes deal with Greens on carbon pricing”.

  • 111

    AAP, “Gillard unfazed by carbon ‘scare campaign”’, Age, 25 February 2011.

  • 112

    “An expensive gamble; Pushing for a carbon tax in Australia”, Economist, 16 July 2011.

  • 113

    AAP, “Gillard unfazed by carbon “scare campaign”.

  • 114

    Ben Packham, “Gillard flags tax cuts to offset cost of living pain form carbon tax”, Australian, 20 March 2011.

  • 115

    Joe Kelly, “Julia Gillard says Asia's economic power means it's the ‘right time’ for climate reform”, Australian, 18 July 2011.

  • 116

    Ibid.

  • 117

    Rob Taylor and James Grubel, “Australia unveils biggest carbon-reduction scheme outside Europe”, Reuters, 10 July 2011.

  • 118

    Ben Packham and James Massola, “Rejecting Singapore Exchange's ASX takeover is a no-brainer: Swan”, Australian, 8 April 2011.

  • 119

    Rowan Callick, “Asia takes dim view of Swan's stance on Singapore”, Australian, 11 April 2011.

  • 120

    Ibid.

  • 121

    Packham and Massola, “Rejecting Singapore Exchange's ASX takeover is a no-brainer: Swan”.

  • 122

    Paul Sheehan, “Cattlemen driven to desperation by Canberra”, Sydney Morning Herald, 15 August 2011.

  • 123

    Richard Willingham and Tom Allard, “Ban on live cattle trade to Indonesia”, Age, 8 June 2011.

  • 124

    Phillip Coorey and Tom Allard, “Live cattle ban to stay”, Sydney Morning Herald, 8 June 2011.

  • 125

    Lanai Vasek and AAP, “Indonesia says ban on live cattle exports may be discriminatory”, Australian, 8 June 2011.

  • 126

    Coorey and Allard, “Live cattle ban to stay”.

  • 127

    Peter Alford and Siobhain Ryan, “Joe Ludwig to face heat in Jakarta on suspension of live cattle exports”, Australian, 18 June 2011.

  • 128

    Joe Kelly, “Julia Gillard urged to back new Asia order and embrace China's leadership in the region”, Australian, 26 April 2011.

  • 129

    Aaron L. Friedberg, “Hegemony with Chinese Characteristics”, National Interest, 21 June 2011.

  • 130

    Ibid.

  • 131

    Rowan Callick, “Asian arms race ‘has potential for calamity”’, Australian, 1 June 2011.

  • 132

    Greg Sheridan, “Julia, enough of your foreign fantasies”, Australian, 4 March 2011; Alexander Downer, “Australia retreats from Asia”, The Asialink Essays, Vol. 3, 4 (12 April 2011; Joe Kelly, “Julia Gillard urged to back new Asia order and embrace China's leadership in the region”, Australian, 26 April 2011.

  • 133

    Tim Lindsey, “Australia and the Real Battle for Indonesian Islam”, The Asialink Essays, Vol. 3, 5 (1 July 2011).

  • 134

    Michael Smith, “The Power of the Yuan. China, Australia and the RMB”, The Asialink Essay Vol. 3, 3 (17 March 2011). Rowan Callick, “Gillard saves some face with Asian diplomacy”, Australian, 30 April 2011.

  • 135

    See for example journalist Christine Jackman's article which questions the utility of prosecuting “young Indonesians from poverty-stricken fishing villages for people-smuggling while the big fish up the chain freely ply their trade”, Weekend Australian Magazine, 16–17 April 2011, p. 13. See also various comments expressing concern about the mandatory sentences required under the law, by sentencing judges in the cases of people-smuggling. In May 2011, in sentencing Edward Nafi, fifty-eight, to the mandatory minimum sentence of eight years, with a non-parole period of five years, for his second people-smuggling offence, Northern Territory Supreme Court judge Judith Kelly said: “Such a sentence is completely out of kilter with sentences handed down in this court for offences of the same or high maximum sentences involving far great moral culpability, including violence causing serious harm to victims.” Sallie Don, “Second judge slams mandatory jail terms”, Australian, 9 June 2011.

  • 136

    See for example the arguments made about Australia's obligations to refugees by the APRRN, “Joint statement on the Australia-Malaysia refugee swap agreement”; and the Refugee Council of Australia's discussion of the administrative and legislative environment for refugees in Malaysia, “Malaysia's Appalling Rights Record Ignored in Refugee Transfer Deal”.

  • 137

    In 2009 then Prime Minister Kevin Rudd described people smugglers as “scum of the earth” who in his opinion “should rot in hell”. Cited in Emma Rodgers, “Rudd wants people-smugglers to ‘rot in hell”’, ABC News, 17 April 2009.