Understanding learners’ behaviour, perceptions and influence in terms of learner performance is crucial to predict the use of electronic learning systems. By integrating the task-technology fit (TTF) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper investigates the online learning utilisation of Taiwanese students. This paper provides a better understanding of individual, technological and social factors regarding online learning system performance. A total of 870 students who were earlier introduced to e-learning were surveyed after a period of exposure to the system. The results of the research model were analysed using a structural equation modelling approach to verify 10 hypotheses; support was found for eight of them. This paper offers a new perspective on the mechanisms through the TTF and TPB model constructs, which facilitates e-learning learner performance and offers important implications for understanding learner performance in online learning environments.