Recently, interest in using video to facilitate teacher reflection has increased. Despite this increase, the frameworks employed to help teachers use video to reflect on their teaching are not based on the results of prior video analysis research. There is a need to better understand how and in what ways video has been used to reflect on one's own teaching. The purpose of this paper is to review past studies in order to help educators make more informed decisions as they establish their own video analysis processes. This review includes 63 studies where participants recorded their own teaching, examined their performance on video and reflected on the performance. Several dimensions of video analysis that varied across past studies are discussed: type of tasks, manner of facilitation, extent to which teachers reflect individually or collaboratively, length of video used, number of reflections and measurement. This paper summarizes reported findings regarding each of these dimensions and raises several questions that need further investigation.
What is already known about this topic
- • Video is a powerful tool for teacher reflection.
- • Video enables teachers to more effectively “see” their practice.
- • Teachers who engage in video reflection report recalling prior videos of their teaching during future teaching, enabling them to more effectively, “reflect in practice.”
What this paper adds
- • A unified synthesis of the literature on video used for teacher self-relfection.
- • A review of the tools used for facilitating teacher reflection via video and their effect on the reflective process.
- • Six different dimensions among which video-aided teacher reflection research varies.
Implications for practice and/or policy
- • Teachers prefer to engage in video analysis for reflection in collaboration with colleagues over reflecting alone and feel that the most important recommended changes come from these collaborative groups.
- • In support of past research, teachers report that the use of a guiding framework (eg., rubric, checklist, teaching principles) helps to focus their reflection. However, most teachers actually prefer to choose their own focus. Thus, administrators should find a balance between the use of a predetermined reflection framework and teachers' choice of focus within that framework.
- • Video-aided teacher reflection has demonstrated posited change through varied measures (self-report, case studies, lesson plans, pre-/posttest scores). However, we do not know which combination of these leads to the greatest or most impactful change. Future research needs to examine the ways in which video-aided teacher reflection can differentially impact teacher practice.