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Instructional effects of a performance support system designed to guide preservice teachers in developing technology integration strategies


  • Faisal Kalota is a member of the Information Technology Strategy and Planning team in University Technology Services at Northeastern Illinois University. His research interests include performance support systems, instructional design, project management and computer programming. Wei-Chen Hung is an associate professor in the Department of Educational Technology, Research and Assessment at Northern Illinois University. His research interests include problem-based learning, human computer interaction and performance support systems.

Dr Faisal Kalota, Member, Information Technology Strategy and Planning team, University Technology Services, Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, IL 60625, USA. Email:



The purpose of this formative evaluation was to investigate the experiences of preservice teachers utilizing performance support system (PSS) technology to develop knowledge related to classroom technology integration. A PSS provides end users just-in-time support to perform various tasks. Because teachers have time constraints, a PSS can be used to support them with classroom technology integration. Both quantitative and qualitative data were used to answer the research questions. Qualitative data included focus group interviews and a perception questionnaire; these data were used to identify factors related to the participant' experiences. In addition, a pre- and post-knowledge test was administered to the preservice teachers (n = 28) to study potential learning impact of a PSS for technology integration. Results showed that, although their learning improvement was not statistically significant, the participants reacted to PSS use positively, with caution. Based on the results, it is recommended that the PSS environment should be updated based on the feedback from the participants, and additional long-term studies should be conducted to validate the current findings.

Practitioner Notes

What is known about this topic

  • • Preservice teachers often lack technology integration skills.
  • • Preservice teachers often do not have the necessary support that can help them develop technology integration skills.
  • • Performance support systems (PSS) are known to provide just-in-time training and learning opportunities.

What this paper adds

  • • Provides a framework for developing a PSS based on the principles of advance organizers.
  • • Provides support to further investigate the use of PSS for preservice and in-service teachers' professional development.

Implications for practice and/or policy

  • • Institutions should investigate the effectiveness of using a PSS to support preservice teachers with technology integration issues.
  • • K-12 schools should investigate the effectiveness of using a PSS to support teachers with technology integration issues.
  • • Designers of PSS should incorporate appropriate learning theories in the design framework of a PSS.