Mobile learning (mlearning) research has in general been characterised by short-term comparative pilot studies with little high-level critique or theory formation. Consequently, there is limited evidence in the literature of mlearning research that is longitudinal across multiple contexts, cooperative and participatory. In response, this paper reflects upon longitudinal (2006–2011) participatory action research and identifies six critical success factors for implementing mobile Web 2.0. These are drawn from the design and implementation of over 35 projects from 2006 to 2011, exploring pedagogical transformation enabled by mobile Web 2.0 integration in higher education. Two of these critical success factors are highlighted in this paper: the need for new approaches to technical and pedagogical support, and the sustained interaction of supporting communities of practice.