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Drawing on the resource-based view of the firm, we examine how complexity, uncertainty and munificence in the general business environment moderate the association between a firm's stakeholder integration capability and its environmental strategy. Our data were drawn from 134 ski resorts in 12 countries in western Europe and North America. Our study finds that (1) an organizational capability of stakeholder integration is associated with a service firm's adoption of a proactive environmental strategy; (2) an uncertain business environment has a direct positive influence and a complex business environment has a direct negative influence on a firm's environmental strategy; and (3) complexity has a negative moderating influence on the relationship between a firm's stakeholder integration capability and its environmental strategy.