DETERMINANTS AND DYNAMICS OF SCHOOLING AND CHILD LABOUR IN BOLIVIA

Authors


Francesco Grigoli, International Monetary Fund, 1900 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington DC 20431, USA. Tel: +1 202 623 4804; Fax: +1 202 579 4804; Email: fgrigoli@imf.org. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the IMF, its Executive Board, or its management. The authors wish to thank Soren Anderson, Fabrizio Carlevaro, Richard G. Newell, and Marc-Alexandre Sénégas for their support in carrying out the econometric analysis. Special thanks are extended to Fabio Montobbio, Simona Iammarino, Dena Ringold, Robert Vos, and the participants of the XV Network on Poverty and Inequality for providing important comments. Finally, two anonymous referees are thanked for improving the original version of the paper. Note that all mistakes and opinions expressed in the paper belong to the authors only.

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the determinants of primary school enrolment, attendance, and child labour in Bolivia from 1999 to 2007, and attempts to analyse the interactions among these decisions over time. Although enrolment rates show a significant improvement, a high proportion of children do not attend school. The empirical results reveal that the increase in enrolment is led by indigenous children and those living in urban areas. Moreover, contrary to common belief, being extremely poor and indigenous are the main determinants of school attendance. Finally, although extremely poor children increased their school attendance, there was no reduction in child labour, which remains a relevant issue in Bolivia.

Ancillary