• cooperation;
  • Game of Chicken;
  • gender effects;
  • label framing effects;
  • social dilemma;
  • wording effects
  • C72;
  • C92


Framing has been widely shown to affect decision making. In this paper, we investigate experimentally whether, and to what extent, cooperative behaviour in a Game of Chicken may be impacted by a very basic change in the labelling of the strategies. Our within-subject experimental design involves two treatments. The only difference between them is that we introduce either a socially-oriented wording (I cooperate/I do not cooperate) or colours (red/blue) to designate strategies. The level of cooperation appears to be higher in the socially-oriented context, but only when uncertainty as regards the type of the partner is manipulated, and especially among females.