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An overview and synthesis of the literature documenting various influences on the socialization and acquisition of children's health attitudes and behavior is the focus of this review. Cognitive-developmental approaches to understanding children's health attitudes are presented, followed by an exploration of an individual differences perspective on children's acquisition of health attitudes and behavior. The influence of various socialization agents, including families, peers, schools, and the media, on children's acquisition of health attitudes and behavior is considered. Implications of these findings for social policy, future research, and modeling of child health attitudes and behavior are examined.