The research summarized in this paper was funded by the Russell Sage Foundation, whose generosity is appreciated. The Infant Health and Development Program was supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Pew Charitable Trusts; the Bureau of Maternal and Child Health and Resources Development, HRSA, PHS, DHHS (MCJ-060515); and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. The participating universities and site directors were Patrick H. Casey, M.D., University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (Little Rock, AR); Cecelia M, McCarton, M.D., Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Bronx, NY); Marie McCormick, M.D., Harvard Medical School (Boston); Charles R. Bauer, M.D., University of Miami School of Medicine (Miami); Judy Bernbaum, M.D., University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (Philadelphia); Jon E. Tyson, M.D., and Mark Swanson, M.D., University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas; Clifford J. Sells, M.D., and Forrest C. Bennett, M.D., University of Washington School of Medicine (Seattle); and David T. Scott, Ph.D., Yale University School of Medicine (New Haven, CT). The Longitudinal Study Office is directed by Cecelia McCarton and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. The Data Coordinating Center is directed by James Tonascia and Curtis Meinert at the Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health. The analysis and writing of this paper were also supported by grants to the second author as codirector of the follow-up of the Infant Health and Development Program from the Pew Charitable Trusts and the Bureau of Maternal and Child Health and Resources Development, and by a grant to the second and third authors by the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation; their generosity is appreciated. We would especially like to thank James Tonascia, Pat Belt, and Michelle Donithan for assistance in data preparation and coordination as well as Rosemary Deibler for her assistance in manuscript preparation. The task of linking addresses in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to census geocodes was funded by grants from the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations and by the Office of the Assistant Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services. Deborah Laren and Naomi Sealand provided valuable research assistance in the PSID analyses.
Economic Deprivation and Early Childhood Development
Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008
Volume 65, Issue 2, pages 296–318, April 1994
How to Cite
Duncan, G. J., Brooks-Gunn, J. and Klebanov, P. K. (1994), Economic Deprivation and Early Childhood Development. Child Development, 65: 296–318. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00752.x
- Issue published online: 28 JUN 2008
- Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008
We consider 3 questions regarding the effects of economic deprivation on child development. First, how are developmental outcomes in childhood affected by poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education? Second, what are the developmental consequences of the duration and timing of family economic deprivation? And, third, what is the comparative influence of economic deprivation at the family and neighborhood level? We investigate these issues with longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program. We find that family income and poverty status are powerful correlates of the cognitive development and behavior of children, even after accounting for other differences—in particular family structure and maternal schooling—between low- and high-income families. While the duration of poverty matters, its timing in early childhood does not. Age-5 IQs are found to be higher in neighborhoods with greater concentrations of affluent neighbors, while the prevalence of low-income neighbors appears to increase the incidence of externalizing behavior problems.