The research summarized in this article owes much to a series of faculty, graduate student, and research assistant collaborators at the Universities of Denver (1980–1981), Texas at Austin (1881-1984), Oregon (1985–1992), and Wisconsin–Madison (1992–1993). Mary K. Rothbart's Infant Behavior Questionnaire served as the model for the TBAQ. Joseph P. Campos sponsored Goldsmith as a postdoctoral fellow during the initial work. His advice was instrumental in the approach to temperament assessment represented by the TBAQ and associated instruments. Donna L. Bradshaw and Loretta A. Rieser-Danner participated while graduate students at the Universities of Denver and Texas at Austin, respectively. They contributed ideas and validity data to the project. Research assistants who worked directly on the project and whose ideas were directly translated into items were Patricia East, Kate Duncan, Karen Jaco, and Teresa Elliott. Mark Layman and Teresa Elliott executed some of the initial statistical analyses. A number of other research assistants and graduate students contributed in various ways, Lori Bowden, Jennifer Alansky Mauro, Nancy Benson Fischette, and Kathryn Lemery being foremost among them. Jennifer Urbano of Vanderbilt University offered an important data analytic suggestion. Michael Crowley of the University of Oregon collected the data in Sample 10 as part of a more extensive graduate research project. Support was provided by the Foundation for Child Development, the Spencer Foundation, the MacArthur Foundation, NICHD, and NIMH.
Studying Temperament via Construction of the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire
Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008
Volume 67, Issue 1, pages 218–235, February 1996
How to Cite
Goldsmith, H. H. (1996), Studying Temperament via Construction of the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire. Child Development, 67: 218–235. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01730.x
- Issue published online: 28 JUN 2008
- Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008
The Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (TBAQ) was constructed by an iterative process of item generation intended to ensure content validity, by repeated item analyses focused on internal consistency and discriminant properties, and by scale revision. During the construction and initial validation processes reported in this article, data from 1,012 records were utilized. Internal consistency reliability estimates typically exceeded .80 for each scale. Evidence for convergent validity with other temperament questionnaires and for longitudinal stability was also obtained. Besides yielding a promising instrument, this assessment research has conceptual ramifications. For instance, components of negative affectivity (anger proneness and fearfulness) were independent, and item analyses suggested that shyness and other fears were independent as well. Consistent with most current views of temperament, the TBAQ temperament scales revealed some relationship and/or contextual specificity, as exemplified by the finding of only moderate parental agreement. The rank ordering on most temperament dimensions was impressively preserved from age 12 months, when the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) was used, to age 18 months, when the TBAQ was used (especially when subtle differences between the IBQ and TBAQ were taken into account). Most of the analyses benefit from replication.