The Relations of Effortful Control and Impulsivity to Children's Resiliency and Adjustment
Article first published online: 3 FEB 2004
Volume 75, Issue 1, pages 25–46, January 2004
How to Cite
Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., Fabes, R. A., Reiser, M., Cumberland, A., Shepard, S. A., Valiente, C., Losoya, S. H., Guthrie, I. K. and Thompson, M. (2004), The Relations of Effortful Control and Impulsivity to Children's Resiliency and Adjustment. Child Development, 75: 25–46. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00652.x
- Issue published online: 3 FEB 2004
- Article first published online: 3 FEB 2004
The unique relations of effortful control and impulsivity to resiliency and adjustment were examined when children were 4.5 to 8 years old, and 2 years later. Parents and teachers reported on all constructs and children's attentional persistence was observed. In concurrent structural equation models, effortful control and impulsivity uniquely and directly predicted resiliency and externalizing problems and indirectly predicted internalizing problems (through resiliency). Teacher-reported anger moderated the relations of effortful control and impulsivity to externalizing problems. In the longitudinal model, all relations held at T2 except for the path from impulsivity to externalizing problems. Evidence of bidirectional effects also was obtained. The results indicate that effortful control and impulsivity are distinct constructs with some unique prediction of resiliency and adjustment.