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Data from 918 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care were examined to test the interrelation of attachment and attentional performance and 2 known risks for poor attentional performance: male gender and social-contextual adversity. Attachment was measured using the Strange Situation at 15 months, attentional performance by a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and maternal questionnaires at 54 months, and social-contextual adversity by a variety of measures from birth to 54 months. Findings indicated (a) that children with secure attachment were less susceptible to the effects of cumulative risk and gender on CPT attentional performance than their insecure counterparts and that (b) no such differential risk susceptibility was evident for maternal reports of attention-related behavior problems.