This study represents part of Alessandra C. Iervolino unpublished doctoral dissertation, which was funded by a studentship from the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom. The Twin Early Development Study (TEDS) is supported by program grant G9424799 from the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom.
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Sex-Typed Behavior During the Preschool Years
Article first published online: 14 JUL 2005
Volume 76, Issue 4, pages 826–840, July 2005
How to Cite
Iervolino, A. C., Hines, M., Golombok, S. E., Rust, J. and Plomin, R. (2005), Genetic and Environmental Influences on Sex-Typed Behavior During the Preschool Years. Child Development, 76: 826–840. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00880.x
- Issue published online: 14 JUL 2005
- Article first published online: 14 JUL 2005
The genetic and environmental etiologies of sex-typed behavior were examined during the preschool years in a sample of 3,990 three- to four-year-old twin and nontwin sibling pairs. Results showed moderate genetic and significant shared environmental influence for boys and substantial genetic and moderate shared environmental influence for girls. For both boys and girls, twin-specific shared environmental effects contributed to twins' similarity in gender role behavior and accounted for approximately 22% of the shared environmental variance. These findings extend previous research conducted with older samples by showing not only important genetic contributions to gender role behavior but also an important role for shared environment. The inclusion of nontwin siblings showed that some of the shared environmental influence is specific to twins.