Kali Trzesniewski was supported by NIMH grants MH45070 and MH49414. Terrie Moffitt is a Royal Society-Wolfson Research Merit Award holder. The E-Risk Study is funded by the Medical Research Council grant E9806489. We are grateful to the Study mothers and fathers, the twins, and the twins' teachers for their participation. We thank Robert Plomin for his contributions, Thomas Achenbach for kind permission to adapt the CBCL, Hallmark Cards for their support, members of the E-Risk team for their dedication, hard work, and insights, and Steve Hinshaw for his helpful comments.
Revisiting the Association Between Reading Achievement and Antisocial Behavior: New Evidence of an Environmental Explanation From a Twin Study
Article first published online: 6 FEB 2006
Volume 77, Issue 1, pages 72–88, January/February 2006
How to Cite
Trzesniewski, K. H., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Taylor, A. and Maughan, B. (2006), Revisiting the Association Between Reading Achievement and Antisocial Behavior: New Evidence of an Environmental Explanation From a Twin Study. Child Development, 77: 72–88. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00857.x
- Issue published online: 6 FEB 2006
- Article first published online: 6 FEB 2006
Previous studies have reported, but not explained, the reason for a robust association between reading achievement and antisocial behavior. This association was investigated using the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994–1995 birth cohort of 5- and 7-year-olds. Results showed that the association resulted primarily from environmental factors common to both reading and antisocial behavior and was stronger in boys. Environmental factors also explained the relation between reading disability and conduct disorder. Leading candidate environmental risk factors weakly mediated the association. For boys the best explanation was a reciprocal causation model: poor reading led to antisocial behavior, and vice versa. In contrast, the relation between reading achievement and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was best explained by common genetic influences.