Delayed Intermodal Contingency Affects Young Children's Recognition of Their Current Self


  • This work was supported by grants from JST PRESTO, Grant-in-Aid from MEXT (15017214) and JSPS (15300086), and the 21st century COE program (Center for Evolutionary Cognitive Science at the University of Tokyo). We would like to thank the parents and children who participated in this study. We are also grateful to the child-care providers who welcomed us into their workplaces and cooperated willingly with our data collection. Masahiro Hirai and Chiyoko Kusu provided valuable comments during analysis of the results, and Sotaro Shimada gave helpful advice and comments with regard to writing of the manuscript.

concerning this article should be addressed to Michiko Miyazaki and Kazuo Hiraki, Hiraki Laboratory, Department of General Systems Studies, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan. Electronic mail may be sent to


This study investigated whether 2-, 3-, and 4-year-olds use their video feedback as a reflection of their current state, even when their feedback was presented with a short temporal delay. In Experiment 1, the effects of 1- and 2-s delayed feedback were examined on an analog of the mark test. In the case of live and 1-s delayed feedback, 3-year-olds passed the test; however, they failed in the case of 2-s delayed feedback. Experiment 2 examined the effect of prior experience of delayed contingency and explorative behavior. The results showed a significant effect of prior experience. These results suggest that detection of visual–proprioceptive contingency contributes to recognition of visual feedback as one's current self.