This research was funded by grants from the William T. Grant Foundation and the Spencer Foundation. The authors are grateful to Dr. Morton Slater, founder of the Gateway Schools program; to the students, teachers, and principals of the Queens Gateway Secondary and Life Sciences Secondary Schools for their cooperation in this research; and to the undergraduate students of Columbia University who assisted in conducting our studies. Finally, we thank Steve Raudenbush for his advice on key statistical analyses.
Implicit Theories of Intelligence Predict Achievement Across an Adolescent Transition: A Longitudinal Study and an Intervention
Article first published online: 28 FEB 2007
Volume 78, Issue 1, pages 246–263, January/February 2007
How to Cite
Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H. and Dweck, C. S. (2007), Implicit Theories of Intelligence Predict Achievement Across an Adolescent Transition: A Longitudinal Study and an Intervention. Child Development, 78: 246–263. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.00995.x
- Issue published online: 28 FEB 2007
- Article first published online: 28 FEB 2007
Two studies explored the role of implicit theories of intelligence in adolescents' mathematics achievement. In Study 1 with 373 7th graders, the belief that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory) predicted an upward trajectory in grades over the two years of junior high school, while a belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory) predicted a flat trajectory. A mediational model including learning goals, positive beliefs about effort, and causal attributions and strategies was tested. In Study 2, an intervention teaching an incremental theory to 7th graders (N=48) promoted positive change in classroom motivation, compared with a control group (N=43). Simultaneously, students in the control group displayed a continuing downward trajectory in grades, while this decline was reversed for students in the experimental group.