We thank Juan Casas and Jamie Ostrov for commenting on a previous draft of this work. This work was supported in part by a National Institute of Mental Health Individual National Research Service Award (F32 MH072005) to the first author, a University of Kansas Undergraduate Research Award to the second author, and a NFGRF grant (2301779) from the University of Kansas to the fourth author.
Direct and Indirect Aggression During Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analytic Review of Gender Differences, Intercorrelations, and Relations to Maladjustment
Article first published online: 15 SEP 2008
© 2008, Copyright the Author(s); Journal Compilation © 2008, Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Volume 79, Issue 5, pages 1185–1229, September/October 2008
How to Cite
Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M. and Little, T. D. (2008), Direct and Indirect Aggression During Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analytic Review of Gender Differences, Intercorrelations, and Relations to Maladjustment. Child Development, 79: 1185–1229. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01184.x
- Issue published online: 15 SEP 2008
- Article first published online: 15 SEP 2008
This meta-analytic review of 148 studies on child and adolescent direct and indirect aggression examined the magnitude of gender differences, intercorrelations between forms, and associations with maladjustment. Results confirmed prior findings of gender differences (favoring boys) in direct aggression and trivial gender differences in indirect aggression. Results also indicated a substantial intercorrelation (= .76) between these forms. Despite this high intercorrelation, the 2 forms showed unique associations with maladjustment: Direct aggression is more strongly related to externalizing problems, poor peer relations, and low prosocial behavior, and indirect aggression is related to internalizing problems and higher prosocial behavior. Moderation of these effect sizes by method of assessment, age, gender, and several additional variables were systematically investigated.