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Early Histories of School-Aged Children With Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder


  • This work was supported by Grants HD26026 and HD42080 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and by Grants T73 MC00036 and T77 MC00031 from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. We thank Lynne Huffman, MD, for her helpful statistical support and review of the article.

concerning this article should be addressed to Heidi M. Feldman, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 750 Welch Road, Suite 315, Palo Alto, CA 94304. Electronic mail may be sent to


In a prospective study of developmental outcomes in relation to early-life otitis media, behavioral, cognitive, and language measures were administered to a large, diverse sample of children at 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9–11 years of age (N = 741). At 9–11 years of age, 9% of the children were categorized as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on parent report. Compared to the non-ADHD group, the ADHD group had higher (i.e., less favorable) scores on parent and teacher versions of the Child Behavior Checklist at all ages. Children in the ADHD group also had lower scores on cognitive and receptive language measures in preschool. The findings support the concept that ADHD is a cognitive as well as a behavioral disorder.