This research was supported by grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CAR-4327) and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (410-2000-0748). We appreciate the extensive support of Tom Woods and the Rock Solid Foundation of British Columbia. We also extend our thanks to superintendent, John Gaiptman, and the principals, teachers, parents, and students of Greater Victoria School District 61. An earlier version of this article was presented at the 2008 biennial meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, Chicago.
The Effects of Peer Victimization and Physical Aggression on Changes in Internalizing From First to Third Grade
Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2009
© 2009, Copyright the Author(s). Journal Compilation © 2009, Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Volume 80, Issue 3, pages 843–859, May/June 2009
How to Cite
Leadbeater, B. J. and Hoglund, W. L. G. (2009), The Effects of Peer Victimization and Physical Aggression on Changes in Internalizing From First to Third Grade. Child Development, 80: 843–859. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01301.x
- Issue online: 15 MAY 2009
- Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2009
Three models of the prospective relations between child maladjustment and peer victimization are examined: (a) internalizing results directly from victimization, (b) internalizing leads to victimization, and (c) physical aggression fuels retaliatory victimization that leads to increases in internalizing over time. Data came from assessments of children at the beginning of Grade 1 (n = 432; average age = 6.3 years), with follow-ups at the end of Grades 1, 2, and 3. Most children showed low stable internalizing trajectories (73%); however, high stable and increasing curvilinear trajectories were evident for 7% and 20% of children, respectively. Findings suggest that children’s adjustment problems at entry to Grade 1 affect the course of their internalizing, in part, by setting the stage for peer victimization.