Maternal smoking during pregnancy retards fetal growth and depresses infant birth weight. The magnitude of these effects may be moderated by fetal genotype. The current study investigated maternal smoking, fetal genotype, and fetal growth in a large population sample of dizygotic twins. Maternal smoking retarded fetal growth in a dose-dependent fashion. In a subsample of 497 twin pairs whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, a functional polymorphism in the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase gene (NQO1 Pro187Ser; rs1800566) was significantly associated with fetal growth within families. The effect was strongest among moderate smokers. This is the first demonstration that fetal genotype for an enzyme involved in tobacco smoke metabolism influences intrauterine growth independent of maternal genotype. Future studies should conduct formal tests of Fetal Genotype × Maternal Smoking interactions.