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Effects of Perinatal HIV Infection and Early Institutional Rearing on Physical and Cognitive Development of Children in Ukraine


  • This research was supported by research grants to the second and third authors from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO SPINOZA Prize; NWO VIDI Grant 452-04-306). F.J. is supported by Wereldkinderen.

concerning this article should be addressed to Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, Centre for Child and Family Studies, Leiden University, PO Box 9555, NL-2300RB Leiden, Netherlands. Electronic mail may be sent to


To study the effects of perinatal HIV-1 infection and early institutional rearing on the physical and cognitive development of children, 64 Ukrainian uninfected and HIV-infected institutionalized and family-reared children were examined (mean age = 50.9 months). Both HIV infection and institutional care were related to delays in physical and cognitive development, with a larger effect of the rearing environment. Family care, even of compromised quality, was found to be more favorable for children’s physical and cognitive development than institutional care. The impact of the quality of child care on physical and cognitive development is discussed in light of future interventions.