This investigation examined basic memory processes, cortisol, and dissociation in maltreated children. School-aged children (age range = 6–13), 143 maltreated and 174 nonmaltreated, were administered the California Verbal Learning Test–Children (D. C. Delis, J. H. Kramer, E. Kaplan, & B. A. Ober, 1994) in a week-long camp setting, daily morning cortisol levels were assessed throughout the duration of camp, and behavioral symptoms were evaluated. Maltreatment and cortisol regulation were not related to short- or long-delay recall or recognition memory. However, children experiencing neglect and/or emotional maltreatment and low cortisol evinced heightened false recognition memory. Dissociative symptoms were higher in maltreated children; however, high dissociation was related to recognition inaccuracy only among nonmaltreated children. Results highlight the interplay between maltreatment and hypocortisolism in children’s recognition memory errors.