Henrike Moll is now at the Department for Comparative and Developmental Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig.
How Does It Look? Level 2 Perspective-Taking at 36 Months of Age
Article first published online: 9 MAR 2011
© 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Volume 82, Issue 2, pages 661–673, March/April 2011
How to Cite
Moll, H. and Meltzoff, A. N. (2011), How Does It Look? Level 2 Perspective-Taking at 36 Months of Age. Child Development, 82: 661–673. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01571.x
We would like to thank Craig Harris for his helpful ideas; Dominik Acala, Calle Fisher, and Alison Alhadeff for assistance with data collection’ and the families who participated in the studies. This research project was supported by a Dilthey Fellowship awarded to the first author by the VolkswagenStiftung, funds generously provided by the Kenneth and Marleen Alhadeff Foundation, and a Science of Learning Center grant from the National Science Foundation (SBE-0354453). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in the article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of these agencies.
- Issue published online: 24 MAR 2011
- Article first published online: 9 MAR 2011
Previous research has found that children engage in Level 2 visual perspective-taking, that is, the understanding that others may see things in a different way, between 4 and 5 years of age (e.g., J. H. Flavell, B. A. Everett, K. Croft, & E. R. Flavell, 1981). This ability was reexamined in 36-month-olds using color filters. In Experiment 1 (N = 24), children had to recognize how an object looked to an adult when she saw it through a color filter. In Experiment 2 (N = 24), a novel production test was applied. Results of both studies show that 36-month-olds know how an object looks to another person. The discussion focuses on the psychological requirements of visual perspective-taking and its relation to other “theory of mind” abilities, such as the distinction between appearance and reality and understanding false belief.