This research was supported by the German Research Foundation Grant BE 3731/2-1. We would like to thank Linda R. Tropp (University of Massachusetts at Amherst), Kai J. Jonas (University of Amsterdam, Netherlands), and five unknown referees for their very helpful comments on earlier versions of this article, and Jonathan Harrow and Alison Benbow for their proofreading.
Development of Ethnic, Racial, and National Prejudice in Childhood and Adolescence: A Multinational Meta-Analysis of Age Differences
Article first published online: 24 OCT 2011
© 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Volume 82, Issue 6, pages 1715–1737, November/December 2011
How to Cite
Raabe, T. and Beelmann, A. (2011), Development of Ethnic, Racial, and National Prejudice in Childhood and Adolescence: A Multinational Meta-Analysis of Age Differences. Child Development, 82: 1715–1737. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01668.x
- Issue published online: 15 NOV 2011
- Article first published online: 24 OCT 2011
This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5–7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8–10 years). In addition to differences for the various operationalizations of prejudice, detailed findings revealed different age-related changes in prejudice toward higher versus lower status out-groups and positive effects of contact opportunities with the out-group on prejudice development. Results confirm that prejudice changes systematically with age during childhood but that no developmental trend is found in adolescence, indicating the stronger influence of the social context on prejudice with increasing age.