The study was supported in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation to Glenn I. Roisman (BCS-0720538). Support from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research to Marinus van IJzendoorn (NWO SPINOZA award) and to Marian Bakermans-Kranenburg (NWO VIDI and VICI grants) is also gratefully acknowledged. We offer special thanks to David, Eve, and Ruth Goldberg, the children of Susan Goldberg, who granted permission to use requested data from Goldberg, Gotowiec, and Simmons (1995) article in this meta-analysis, as well as to all of the other investigators who were responsive to our requests for clarifications about their studies.
The Significance of Insecure and Disorganized Attachment for Children’s Internalizing Symptoms: A Meta-Analytic Study
Article first published online: 11 JAN 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Volume 83, Issue 2, pages 591–610, March/April 2012
How to Cite
Groh, A. M., Roisman, G. I., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. and Fearon, R. P. (2012), The Significance of Insecure and Disorganized Attachment for Children’s Internalizing Symptoms: A Meta-Analytic Study. Child Development, 83: 591–610. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01711.x
- Issue published online: 14 MAR 2012
- Article first published online: 11 JAN 2012
This meta-analytic review examines the association between attachment and internalizing symptomatology during childhood, and compares the strength of this association with that for externalizing symptomatology. Based on 42 independent samples (N = 4,614), the association between insecurity and internalizing symptoms was small, yet significant (d = 0.15, CI 0.06∼0.25) and not moderated by assessment age of internalizing problems. Avoidance, but not resistance (d = 0.03, CI −0.11∼0.17) or disorganization (d = 0.08, CI −0.06∼0.22), was significantly associated with internalizing symptoms (d = 0.17, CI 0.03∼0.31). Insecurity and disorganization were more strongly associated with externalizing than internalizing symptoms. Discussion focuses on the significance of attachment for the development of internalizing versus externalizing symptomatology.