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Parental Racial Socialization as a Moderator of the Effects of Racial Discrimination on Educational Success Among African American Adolescents


  • A special thanks to Scott Seider and Esohe Osai for their comments on an early version of this manuscript.

concerning this article should be addressed to Ming-Te Wang, 5940 Posvar Hall, Pittsburgh, 230 South Bouquet Street, PA 15260. Electronic mail may be sent to


This study investigated whether parental racial socialization practices moderated the relation between racial discrimination in school and adolescents’ educational outcomes. Using data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of 630 African American adolescents (mean age = 14.5) from a major East Coast metropolis, the results revealed that cultural socialization attenuated the effect of teacher discrimination on grade point average (GPA) and educational aspirations, as well as the effect of peer discrimination on GPA. Also, preparation for bias and cultural socialization interacted to make unique contributions to African American adolescents’ educational outcomes. Finally, there was some evidence that teacher discrimination was more detrimental to the academic engagement of African American males than females. Implications for research and practice are discussed.