An Example-based Procedural System for Element Arrangement



We present a method for synthesizing two dimensional (2D) element arrangements from an example. The main idea is to combine texture synthesis techniques based-on a local neighborhood comparison and procedural modeling systems based-on local growth. Given a user-specified reference pattern, our system analyzes neigh-borhood information of each element by constructing connectivity. Our synthesis process starts with a single seed and progressively places elements one by one by searching a reference element which has local features that are the most similar to the target place of the synthesized pattern. To support creative design activities, we introduce three types of interaction for controlling global features of the resulting pattern, namely a spray tool, a flow field tool, and a boundary tool. We also introduce a global optimization process that helps to avoid local error concentrations. We illustrate the feasibility of our method by creating several types of 2D patterns.