Real-Time Fluid Effects on Surfaces using the Closest Point Method
Article first published online: 10 MAY 2012
© 2012 The Authors Computer Graphics Forum © 2012 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Computer Graphics Forum
Volume 31, Issue 6, pages 1909–1923, September 2012
How to Cite
Auer, S., Macdonald, C. B., Treib, M., Schneider, J. and Westermann, R. (2012), Real-Time Fluid Effects on Surfaces using the Closest Point Method. Computer Graphics Forum, 31: 1909–1923. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8659.2012.03071.x
- Issue published online: 21 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 10 MAY 2012
- fluid modelling, animation, ray tracing, real-time rendering
- I.6.8 [Simulation and Modeling] Types of Simulation—Parallel;
- I.3.7 [Computer Graphics] Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism—Raytracing
The Closest Point Method (CPM) is a method for numerically solving partial differential equations (PDEs) on arbitrary surfaces, independent of the existence of a surface parametrization. The CPM uses a closest point representation of the surface, to solve the unmodified Cartesian version of a surface PDE in a 3D volume embedding, using simple and well-understood techniques. In this paper, we present the numerical solution of the wave equation and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on surfaces via the CPM, and we demonstrate surface appearance and shape variations in real-time using this method. To fully exploit the potential of the CPM, we present a novel GPU realization of the entire CPM pipeline. We propose a surface-embedding adaptive 3D spatial grid for efficient representation of the surface, and present a high-performance approach using CUDA for converting surfaces given by triangulations into this representation. For real-time performance, CUDA is also used for the numerical procedures of the CPM. For rendering the surface (and the PDE solution) directly from the closest point representation without the need to reconstruct a triangulated surface, we present a GPU ray-casting method that works on the adaptive 3D grid.