Using a sample of S&P 1500 firms between 1997 and 2000, this paper examines the effects of outside directors' stock-option compensation on firms' R&D intensity. Results suggest that including stock options in outside directors' compensation enhances firms' R&D. Moreover, stock-option compensation moderates the relationship between board composition and R&D intensity. These results suggest that outside directors' compensation schemes do matter. The results also highlight the need to re-evaluate previous findings that addressed the effects of board composition on both firms' performance and strategic decisions.