In 2003, Olaf Fisscher and Petra de Weerd-Nederhof took over the editorial duties on Creativity and Innovation Management from its founding editors, Tudor Rickards and Susan Moger, with the firm objectives: (1) to further expand the journal's outreach in Creativity and Innovation Management research, based on its unique niche and position between innovation management journals on the one hand and creativity journals on the other; and (2) to build on the solid scientific and academic basis of the then ten-year-old journal towards gaining ISI listing. In 2008, Klaasjan Visscher joined in working towards these ambitious goals. The editorial board was strengthened and departmental editors were appointed covering CIM's focal areas of Continuous Innovation and Creative Leadership, Creative Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Creative Problem Solving and Creativity Techniques, Creativity and Innovative Behaviour, Design Management and Creative Industries, Innovation Networks, Teams and Projects, and Innovation Processes and Radical Innovation. Also, the journal's base of associated partners was broadened by welcoming on board, next to the European Association of Creativity and Innovation (EACI), the Continuous Innovation Network CINet and the Product Development and Management Association (PDMA), and by regularly publishing specials with articles based on paper presentations from the conferences held by these partners. A novelty introduced by Olaf Fisscher was the series of Creativity and Innovation Management Community workshops. The first one was hosted by our publisher Wiley-Blackwell in Oxford, the second one by the International Center for Studies in Creativity in Buffalo, and the third one by the Ecole des Mines and the Paris Descartes University in Paris. Last but not least, an annual Best Paper Award was developed, named after the founding editors Tudor Rickards and Susan Moger.
It is a very great pleasure for us to write the editorial for this particular issue of Creativity and Innovation Management, because in 2012, a great number of the things we set out to achieve came to bear fruit. First of all, Creativity and Innovation Management has gained ISI listing. This means that all CIM articles from 2010 are now included in the Web of Science, and that the first Journal Impact Factor can be expected for June 2013. We will celebrate this in our 4th CIM Community workshop, which will take place on 28–29 June 2012 at the Technical University of Berlin, with keynote lectures by Hans-Georg Gemünden, Olaf Fisscher and Marjolein Caniëls.
In this editorial we can confirm the winners of the Tudor Rickards and Susan Moger award for the best paper published in CIM in 2011: ‘Communitition: The Tension between Competition and Collaboration in Community-Based Design Contests’ by Katja Hutter, Julia Hautz, Johann Füller, Julia Mueller and Kurt Matzler. The runners-up were: ‘Organizational Creativity in Heterarchies: The Case of VFX Production’ by Volker Spelthann and Axel Haunschild, and ‘The Interplay between Creativity Issues and Design Theories: A New Perspective for Design Management Studies?’ by Pascal Le Masson, Armand Hatchuel and Benoit Weil. All these high quality articles can be downloaded from our website free-of-charge. We cordially invite you to revisit these and other CIM contributions to inspire you and your research!
After this wonderful Creativity and Innovation Management news, it is with some regret that we have to announce that this current issue also marks the farewell of Olaf Fisscher as an editor of this journal. His keynote in Berlin on 28 June will be his farewell speech, marking not only his 65th birthday but also his retirement. His speech will focus on Integrity and Innovation, a topic at the heart of CIM's aims and scope. To celebrate Olaf's importance for the journal and his contribution to the field, this June issue is a full special on the areas close to his academic heart: innovation management, the quality of organization, and implications for business ethics and corporate social responsibility. This special came into being with contributions from colleagues who have worked with Olaf through the years, and under the inspiring special issue co-editorship of Ursula Weisenfeld from the Leuphana University of Lüneburg. Below we will further address the content of this truly special Special, inspired by the work of Olaf Fisscher at the University of Twente.
With an MSc in Engineering, a PhD in Social Sciences and university positions in Human Resource Management, Management of Quality and Innovation and, finally, in Organization Studies and Business Ethics, Olaf is an interdisciplinary researcher who is very knowledgeable and interested in various subjects. In his research and his teaching he has always been highly motivated to substantially contribute to the quality of organizations and, in a broader sense, of business life, from a human and societal perspective. From early on, he emphasized the need to integrate social responsibility into organizations' actions and particularly into innovation management, an area where it might be difficult to identify contributory fault and relate cause and effect, especially when effects are unintended, protracted or not immediately visible. His contributions to the quality of organizations from a human and societal perspective, his work on corporate responsibility and his drive to further the inclusion of social responsibility in innovation efforts distinguish him as a responsible researcher.
Both the fields of innovation and of responsibility have gained a lot of attention in recent years: innovation has been acknowledged as a key force in the development of organizations, markets and society, and corporate responsibility has become an important topic owing to increased attention and demands from various stakeholders and networks of stakeholders. Both topics are linked in the intriguing concept of ‘Inclusive Innovation’, developed by Olaf Fisscher together with his colleagues Andre Nijhof and Jan Kees Looise What is driving innovation and change, to what extent can it be steered and how can responsibility be incorporated into these processes? Prominence is given to human agency, complemented by works on the role of context, emerging structures and entanglements (such as technological trajectories or actor network theory).
The contributions to the present CIM issue cover a broad spectrum of creativity and innovation management issues, thereby reflecting the richness that the field has attained.
Organizational boundaries are neither stable, nor clear-cut, and in most industries, innovation processes are characterized by inter-organizational co-operation. The authors of the first article, ‘SME Network Characteristics vs. Product Innovativeness: How to Achieve High Innovation Performance’, expect that inter-organizational co-operation in new product development (NPD) and the degree to which new products are innovative will affect innovation performance. Annemien Pullen, Petra de Weerd-Nederhof, Aard Groen and Olaf Fisscher test a number of hypotheses in the medical devices sector, a field which is characterized by heavy regulation. The authors find no direct significant effect of individual network characteristics on innovation performance; however, the composition of network characteristics is related to innovation performance. The key conclusion is that for SMEs in a highly regulated sector, the configuration of network characteristics seems to be important for innovation performance.
Team creative performance is at the core of the second article, ‘Psychological Safety, Knowledge Sharing, and Creative Performance in Healthcare Teams’. Again set in the dynamic, yet heavily regulated healthcare sector, Maura Kessel and Jan Kratzer investigate how psychological safety influences the creative performance of a team, arguing that healthcare teams are particularly interesting to study because they usually are characterized by a strong sense of social responsibility. The authors find psychological safety in teams contributing to the team's creative performance, mediated by knowledge sharing. The results bear important implications regarding psychological climate and knowledge sharing.
In his article about ‘The Context of Innovation Journeys’, Arie Rip takes issue with the emphasis on agency in the innovation management literature, and discusses how ‘niche’, ‘cosmopolitan’ and ‘landscape’ layers are mutually dependent and how interactions and processes lead to structures-by-entanglement. These layers provide enablers and constraints in the innovation journey (and actors' intentions become less important compared to actual activities and interactions). The author emphasizes the importance of anticipation and anticipatory co-ordination, the latter potentially becoming a further layer relevant for innovation journeys.
Francisca Castro, Jorge Gomes and Fernando de Sousa analyse the inter-individual relationship between emotional intelligence and creativity in a hospital setting. In their article ‘Do Intelligent Leaders Make a Difference? The Effect of a Leader's Emotional Intelligence on Followers' Creativity’, which is based on a paper presented at the ECCI XII conference, they measure leaders' emotional intelligence on a scale comprising six factors (based on Rego et al.) via self-assessment as well as through employees' assessment, and followers' creativity via self-assessment as well as through leaders' assessment, and find a positive relationship between the two constructs. However, contrary to expectation, the authors do not find a mediating effect of creative climate on the relationship. Furthermore, findings regarding some factors of emotional intelligence differ from the results of Rego et al.; the authors propose that this might be owing to differences in sample characteristics (with the sample of the current study comprising mainly women).
While product and process innovations have received considerable attention in theory and practice, this is not the case for business model innovation. Eva Bucherer, Uli Eisert and Oliver Gassmann draw on the product innovation literature and 11 examples of business model innovation to identify similarities and differences between these types of innovations and to develop a framework for analysis of business model innovation. The article, ‘Towards Systematic Business Model Innovation: Lessons from Product Innovation Management’, provides a structured approach to describe and categorize business model innovation, thereby contributing to a better understanding of the management issues.
The next two articles are about corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the context of innovation and look at stakeholders' role in judging CSR. The article ‘Corporate Social Responsibility in Innovation: Insights from two Cases of Syngenta's Activities in Genetically Modified Organisms’ by Ursula Weisenfeld discusses difficulties of managing collective responsibility in innovation: involving high uncertainty, stakeholders' demands and perceptions will vary and may change. They provide perspectives, but not a decision basis. Discussing two examples from the highly controversial area of genetic modification, it is concluded that organizations need to take steps to organize for responsibility (a request that Olaf has voiced on many occasions) and that responsibility needs to be complemented with accountability, meaning answering for outcomes and dealing with consequences.
Frank de Bakker focuses on activist groups as a particular type of stakeholder and investigates the role of networks of activist groups in influencing CSR activities of companies. In the conceptual article ‘Exploring Networks of Activism on Corporate Social Responsibility: Suggestions for a Research Agenda’, he draws on literature from social movements, institutional theory and social network analysis to further the understanding of how these networks operate and might shape CSR in a field.
The article ‘The Ethical Dilemma of Information Asymmetry in Innovation: Reputation, Investors and Noise in the Innovation Channel’ looks at the funding of innovative SME on the one hand and their performance on the other. Carla Millar, Yuri Udalov and Hartley Millar identify information asymmetry as a key problem for investors and governments when looking for companies worthwhile being funded.
The issue further holds two book reviews, also authored by colleagues of Olaf Fisscher. Antoni Brack gives us a special review of books brought together under the theme of Innovation, Corporate Social Responsibility, Ethics and the Law. Han van der Meer and Jan Buijs discuss Teresa Amabile and Steve Kramer's The Progress Principle: Using Small Wins to Ignite Joy, Engagement, and Creativity at Work.
On 14 June 2012, editors and authors will surprise Olaf Fisscher with this collection of academic articles, brought together to celebrate his work, on the occasion of his Dutch farewell speech at the University of Twente. The special will be accompanied by an Appendix, including Position Papers and Practitioners' Insights. This Appendix will be made available online as well. We do hope that you enjoy this special as much as we have enjoyed putting it together.
We also look forward to the International Product Development Management Conference taking place in Manchester in June, and we look ahead to another CINet conference in Rome, in September. Links are provided on our website, as well as a number of calls for papers for stimulating new CIM specials planned for 2013 and beyond.