This postscript highlights questions that are particularly germane for thinking about how to use modern, state of the art investigations of impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability to advance a broader decision-supporting research agenda. They are drawn from the fundamental conclusion from the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change—“Responding to climate change involves an iterative risk management process that includes both adaptation and mitigation . . . .” They are:

  • 1
    How do we mainstream climate adaptation into decision-making with multiple stresses?
  • 2
    Are we now at a juncture where we can begin to calibrate the value of mitigation over the short to medium term?
  • 3
    How do we know, as is often claimed, that adaptive capacity will be overwhelmed by unabated climate change?
  • 4
    What does “iterative” mean in practice?

This collection of essays might show the way so that, in 5 or 10 years time, we have better answers.