The negotiation of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (the Convention) which began in December 1991 within the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), was concluded by a Diplomatic Conference in Vienna in June 1994. The Convention was formally opened for signature on 20 September 1994 in conjunction with the annual General Conference of the IAEA. Today, 63 states have signed the Convention and 19 have ratified or accepted it. Out of these 19 countries, 14 are currently operating nuclear power plants.1 It is hoped that the Convention will come into force this year. This article analyzes its scope and content.