Timo Koivurova, LL.D. is a Research Professor in arctic environmental and minority law, and a Director of the Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law (Arctic Centre/University of Lapland). His main research has focused on international environmental law, espe-cially on how it applies in arctic conditions. This article benefited greatly from comments by Tapio Määttä, Professor of Environmental Law, and Leila Suvantola, LL.M. Lic. (Admin. Sci.), both of the Department of Law, University of Joensuu.