This article explores the links between biodiversity and sustainable human development, on the one hand, and the globally agreed Millennium Development Goals. In particular, it focuses on the important role and contribution that biodiversity and the 1992 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity can make to ongoing efforts and processes to reduce poverty, hunger, disease and environmental degradation worldwide. Damage to ecosystems, species and habitats, and the loss of biodiversity can and will have a serious impact on human health and development. The future of human development will be closely affected by individual choices and political decisions in industrialized countries. Governments, international financial institutions, the private sector, intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations need to take action to meet their global responsibilities regarding biodiversity conservation, poverty reduction and sustainable development, and their responsibilities to present and future generations.