Following an introductory review of the continuing problem of salmon escaping from aquaculture operations along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America, and the considerable uncertainties over ecological impacts, this article examines the law and policy context for preventing escapes from three perspectives. First, the limited guidance for addressing aquaculture escapes under existing global and regional agreements/arrangements is highlighted. Second, how Canada and the USA have sought to control escape events at national and provincial/State levels is summarized. Third, possible future courses are identified, which improve the way salmon escapes are addressed, with stronger regional responses suggested as most promising. Enhancing the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization's role in preventing escapes and placing transboundary aquaculture issues on the agendas of North Pacific regional cooperative arrangements are the potential courses emphasized.